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Bibliography for Kant Iconography

Anderson, Eduard (1932). “Ein unbekanntes Kantbildnis.” Kant-Studien 37: 309-10.

Discusses the Vernet-Fuchs image.
Friedrich Wilhelm Eduard Anderson was the founder of the Stadtgeschichtlichen Museum in Königsberg (with its “Kant Room”), and served as its first director (1927). This brief note discusses the Vernet image of Kant without a wig, a plate of which is found in the same volume, after p. 236. Anderson noted that there were a great many copies by Vernet — either on pergament or ivory — and that it would be an interesting exercise to gather them all together to determine which is the original (something that Anderson had not done). He reports that three such paintings are in the Kantzimmer of the city museum in Königsberg, and that a fourth, on ivory, is still to be found in the university matriculation book.

 —— (1933). “Neue Kantbildnisse.” Mitteilungen des Vereins für die Geschichte von Ost- und Westpreußen (Königsberg), 8: 26-29.

Discusses two new Kant images: (1) the Vernet-Fuchs image discussed in his 1932 essay (and much of this is a verbatim recapitulation), and (2) a sketch (apparently now lost; I have found no image of it) in black-chalk, based on the Lowe miniature, and which in turn served as the basis for the Liebe copper engraving (copies of which still exist).

 —— (1936). “Introduction” to Das Kantzimmer. Verzeichnis der Kant-Andenken im Stadtgeschichtlichen Museum der Stach Königsberg, hrsg. vom entsprechenden Museum (Königsberg).

 —— (1943). “Das Kantbild der Gräfin C. Ch. A. Keyserling, geb. Reichsgräfin von Truchseß-Waldburg im Schloß Rautenberg.” Mitteilungen des Vereins für die Geschichte von Ost- und Westpreußen (Königsberg, 1943), pp. 21-31. Reprint: Sonderschriften des Vereins für Familienforschung in Ost- und Westpreußen, Nr. 75, Bd. 4 (Hamburg: 1993).

Discusses Countess Keyserling’s sketch of Kant that was routinely claimed to be our earliest sketch of Kant, completed perhaps in the 1750s, possibly when Kant was serving as a tutor in the Keyserling home (and thus before 1755 — cf. Vaihinger [1898b]). Anderson argues that there are good reasons to believe that the image does not stem from the early 1750s, as was commonly believed: the powdered wig became fashionable only by 1755, the coat is inappropriate for a mere Hofmeister, and the back of the print refers to "Professor Kant" (which would date the image to some time after 1770). There is also reason to believe that the drawing is a copy from another work, and not from life [expand??]. Anderson believes that the image dates from the 1770s, but is not copied from the Becker portrait, which shows Kant with a narrower head than the Döbler and Vernet portraits. Consequently, he believes that the Keyserling image is closer to how Kant might have appeared. A comparison with Keyserling and the Scheuen engraving from Becker (prepared in 1773 and published as a frontispiece in the Allgemeinen Deutschen Bibliothek (vol. 20, #1) — and thus would have been readily available to the countess as a model [it also bears a close resemblance to Becker-B]), however, shows the Keyserling head narrower, if anything, than Schleuen — and that the two images look remarkably similar.

Benninghoven, Friedrich, ed. (1974). Immanuel Kant: Leben, Umwelt, Werk, an exhibition catalog (Berlin-Dahlem: Geheimes Staatsarchiv Preußischer Kulturbesitz), 170 pp.

Biehahn, Erich (1958). “Das Berliner Kantbildnis.” Kant-Studien, 50: 255-56.

 —— (1961). “Zwei unbekannte Kantbildnisse der Deutschen Staatsbibliothek.” Kant-Studien, 53: 127.

 ——, ed. (1961). Kunstwerke der Deutschen Staatsbibliothek, im Auftrage der Hauptdirektion der Deutschen Staatsbibliothek (Berlin: Henschelverlag), 135 pp.

Includes description and black-and-white illustrations of a plaster copy of the Hagemann bust and the Frisch copy of the Becker portrait (pp. 18-19, illus. 21).

Benninghoven, Friedrich, ed. (1974). Immanuel Kant: Leben, Umwelt, Werk, an exhibition catalog (Berlin-Dahlem: Geheimes Staatsarchiv Preußischer Kulturbesitz), 170 pp.

Brinckmann, Justus (1896). “Beiträge der Töpferkunst in Deutschland.” Jahrbuch der Hamburgischen Wissenschaftlichen Anstalten (Hamburg: Commissions-Verlag von Lucas Gräfe & Sillem, 1896), pp. 43-77

This is volume 13 (1895) of the Jahrbuch. The Brinckmann essay concerns Königsberg (Preussen) and Durlach (Baden); the first section discusses two ceramicists — Ehrenrich (pp. 45-58) and the Collin brothers (pp. 59-63) — and in the discussion of the latter, the Kant bas-relief of 1782 is described.

Cheetham, Mark A. (2001). Kant, Art, and Art History: Moments of Discipline. (New York/Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), 219 pp.

Clasen, Karl-Heinz (1924). Kant-Bildnisse. Mit Unterstützung der Stadt Königsberg hrsg. v. der Königsberger Ortsgruppe der Kant-Gesellschaft. (Königsberg: Gräfe und Unzer), 30 pp.

Includes 20 plates of Kant images (#19 is a photograph of the death-mask, #20 is of the skull). Clasen was a Privatdozent of art history at Königsberg.

 ——. “Das Kantbilder-Werk.” Reichls Philosophischer Almanach auf das Jahr 1924. Ed. Paul Feldkeller (op cit.). 238-40.

Demmler, Theodor (1924). “Emanuel Bardous Kantbüste vom Jahre 1798.” Kant-Studien 29: 316-20.

Diestel, G. [=Theodor??] (1899). “Nachlese.” Kant-Studien, 3: 163-67.

Comments on Lubowski [1899] and the Dresden 1790 portrait.

 —— (1901). “‘Dresdener Kantbild’ — ein Werk der Elisabeth v. Stägemann?” Kant-Studien, 6: 113-14.

Distel, Theodor (1909). “Das endlich aufgefundene Original von Schnorrs Kant-Zeichnung.” Kant-Studien, 14: 143-144.

Essers, Volkmar (1974). “Kant-Bildnisse.” Immanuel Kant: Leben, Umwelt, Werk. Ed. Friedrich Benninghoven (op cit.). 39-63.

Feldkeller, Paul, ed. (1924). Reichls Philosophischer Almanach auf das Jahr 1924. Immanuel Kant zum Gedächtnis, 22. April 1924 (Darmstadt: Otto Reichl Verlag), 480 pp.

The Keyserling drawing of Kant serves as a frontispiece, with the inscription: "Immanuel Kant um 1755 / nach einer Zeichnung / der Gräfin Charlotte Amalia Keyserling / geb. Gräfin Truchsess-Waldburg".

Forstreuter, Kurt (1963). “Ein Bildnis Kants in Holland.” Preußenland. Mitteilungen der historischen Kommission für Ost- und Westpreußische Landesforschung, 1: 28-32.

Reports on a miniature of Kant, found in Holland, painted by Johannes Gottlieb Harwardt and dated 1793. Harwardt was born in Königsberg and attended the university there (matriculated 1 Jul 1784). The painting itself, a miniature, is very much in the manner and style of Vernet, and should probably be viewed as a Vernet copy, although there is no reason to doubt that Harwardt would have seen Kant at some time or other. Forstreuter also investigates the identity of Vernet.

Friedlaender, Julius, ed. (1864). Gottfried Schadow. Aufsätze und Briefe, nebst einem Verzeichniss seiner Werke (Düsseldorf: Julius Buddeus), 165 pp.

Schadow’s essay, “Die Werkstätte des Bildhauers,” in which he mentions the Hagemann busts, is reprinted at pp. 51-64. This essay first appeared in the journal Eunomia (eds. Fessler and Fischer), 1802, vol. 2.

Fromm, Emil (1898a). “Das Kantbildnis der Gräfin Karoline Charlotte Amalia von Keyserling.” Kant-Studien, 2: 145-160.

 —— (1898b). “Noch einmal die Kantmedaille mit dem schiefen Turm von Pisa.” Kant-Studien, 2: 376-77.

Gause, Fritz (1961). “Kant und die Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika.” Das Ostpreußenblatt, Jahrgang 12, Folge 21, p. 11.

Includes a reproduction of a Collin (1782) bas-relief housed in the Hamburger Museum für Kunst und Geschichte.

 —— (1996, 11969). Die Geschichte der Stadt Königsberg in Preussen, vol. 2: “Von der Königskrönung bis zum Ausbruch des ersten Weltkrieges” (Köln: Böhlau Verlag). 2nd enlarged edition: 1996.

 —— (1974). Kant und Königsberg. Ein Buch der Erinnerung an Kants 250. Geburtstag am 22. April 1974. (Leer 1974).

Grimoni, Lorenz and Martina Will, eds. (2004). Immanuel Kant: Erkenntnis — Freiheit — Frieden. Katalog zur Austellung anlässlich des 200. Todestages am 12. Februar 2004, Museum Stadt Königsberg der Stadtgemeinschaft Königsberg (Pr) im Kultur- und Stadthistorischen Museum Duisburg (Husum: Husum Verlag).

Duisburg adopted Königsberg as a sister-city in 1951, and opened the Museum Haus Königsberg in 1968; this was later transformed and renamed (5 Dec 1992) as the Museum Stadt Königsberg, where it is housed in the same building as the Kultur- und Stadthistorische Museum Duisburg.

Grolle, Joist (1995). Kant in Hamburg — Der Philosoph und sein Bildnis von Friedrich Hagemann (Stuttgart: Verlag Gerd Hatje), 64 pp.

This volume was prepared in conjunction with an exhibit by the same name at the Hamburger Kunsthalle, April 7-June 18, 1995.

Grommelt, Carl and Christine von Mertens (1962). Das Dohnasche Schloß Schlobitten in Ostprußen (Stuttgart: W. Kohlhammer Verlag), 543 pp.

Much of the information for this work, as well as the images, was collected in the 1920s and 1930s, with an inventory list of the art collection at Schlobitten prepared in 1935. The Schloß was destroyed after WW II (first occupied by Soviet officers, then burned to the ground), and many of the treasures inventoried in this book were destroyed, while others were scattered and lost.
Two images of Kant are mentioned: a painting (#89) and a graphic (#60). The latter is the Senewaldt, and a photographic reproduction is provided (p. 246); this corresponds with Senewaldt(b), as presented on this website and as reproduced in Clasen [1924]. No other information is given about the painting (#89), although one gathers from Vaihinger [1901b] that it might have been a Vernet miniature. The Senewaldt is discussed further in the text as follows: “Von Immanuel Kant (Abb. 194) besitzt Schlobitten eine Silberstiftzeichnung von dem Berliner Bildnismaler F. W. Senewaldt, der auch in Schlobitten gewesen ist und von den Kindern Friedrich Alexander Dohnas und andern Verwandten sehr reizvolle Profilporträts gemacht hat” (p. 246).

Grunert, W. (1962). “Das Insterburger Kantbild.” Jahrbuch der Albertus Universität zu Königsberg (Würzburg: Holzner Verlag), 12: 339-40.

Grunert appears to have lived in Insterburg before WW II, when this Vernet miniature was on display in the castle there. This small oil painting of Kant now hangs in the office of the university rector in Göttingen, but was originally owned privately, most recently by a Dr. Bercio, a prosecuting attorney in Insterburg (after 1946, Chernyakhovsk, located in the Kaliningrad Oblast), who left it to the local historical society upon his death in 1937, and where it was displayed in the Heimatmuseum in the old castle. Near the end of World War II the soldier-on-leave curator, Walter Gronau, took it out of its frame and into his wallet for safekeeping, after which the painting followed the re-deployed soldier to Bohemia, where he was captured by the Russians, sent to Auschwitz as a prisoner, and was eventually released, making his way to the west, where he gave the painting to the Schleswig professor La Baume. La Baume, in concert with Grunert, decided to loan the painting to the newly formed “Society of the Friends of Kant” in Gottingen (April 1949), where it eventually received a new frame and was put on display at the university, in the Rektoratzimmer.

The only description given by Grunert is that the painting is done in oil and that Kant is shown wearing a white wig, with the “kurze Zöpfchen im Nacken” (presumably he means here the three curls seen on the side of the wig, since the Vernet miniatures do not show the hair-bag on the back. Grunert mistakenly identifies the artist as Horace Vernet (1789-1863 [sic]).

Hagen, August (1853). “Der Maler und Kupferstecher Lowe.“ Der neuen Preussischen Provinzial-Blätter, 2nd series, 3: 316-29.

Hess, Ludwig von (1816). Agonieen der Republik Hamburg im Frühjahr 1813, 2nd ed. (Hamburg: [self-published], 1816), v, 384 pp.

Hügelmann, Karl (1879). “Ein Brief über Kant. Mitgeteilt von Karl Hügelmann.” Altpreußische Monatsschrift, 16: 607-12. 

Reprinted at Malter (1990), pp. 418-21.

Jachmann, Reinhold (1864). “Ein ähnliches Portrait Kants.” Altpreussischen-Monatsschrift 1 (1864): 464-65.

The author is the son of Reinhold Bernhard Jachmann (1767-1843), the close friend and biographer of Kant. Kant had given R. B. Jachmann a painting of him by Vernet, and this is described by the author, who also advertised photographic reproductions of the painting.

Lange, Heinrich (2004). “Aus Kants Wohnung ins Museum Stadt Königsberg: Eine Bouillon-Tasse mit Unterschale.” Immanuel Kant: Erkenntnis — Freiheit — Frieden. Eds. Lorenz Grimoni and Martina Will (op cit.). 184-85.

 —— (2006). “Eine Bouillon-Tasse der Königlichen Porzellan-Manufaktur mit dem Bildnis des ‘ehrwürdigen Weltweisen’ Immanuel Kant.” Preußenland, 44 (2006): 54-78.

 —— (2007). “Außerordentlich ähnlich! Fünf Porträt-Stiche bzw. -Zeichnungen von Immanuel Kant im Museum Stadt Königsberg: Ein Geschenk des Grafen von Dönhoff.” Königsberger Bürgerbrief, 70 (2007): 32-34.

 —— (2009a). “Die Porträts Immanuel Kants von und nach dem Berliner Maler Gottlieb Doebler.” Kant-Studien, 100 (2009): 476-95.

 —— (2009b). “Doepler porträtierte auch Immanuel Kant.” Preußische Allgemeine Zeitung, No. 29 (18 Jul 2009): 9.

Lind, P[aul] von (1899). “Ein Stägemann'sches Kantbild.” Kant-Studien, 3: 255-56.

Reports the author's efforts at locating the yet-to-be-found painting of Kant by Elisabeth von Stägemann.

 ——(1900). “Das Kantbild des Fürsten von Pless.” Kant-Studien, 4: 102-6.

Discusses the Senewaldt portrait (and includes an illustration), and also offers a comparison of Döbler and the copy by Stobbe. He concludes: “Of all the images of Kant, the Senewaldt is the best, besides the representations by Döbler and Hagemann [the bust].” [Vaihinger editorially noted here that Lind was unfamiliar with the Dresden painting, which had just surfaced.]

Lubowski, Karl (1899). “Ein neues Kantbildnis.” Kant-Studien, 3: 160-67.

Discusses the purchase of the painting (from an antiquities dealer in Dresden) for the city of Königsberg, and notes that no earlier provenance could be determined, other than the previous owner (Dr. Dzondi of Niederpoyritz, and that it had been in his parent's house since c.1820).

Malter, Rudolf (1981). “Kant im Keyserlingschen Haus. Erläuterungen zu einer Miniatur aus dem Jahre 1781.” Kant-Studien 72: 88-95.

 —— (1982). “Zu Lowes Kantminiatur aus dem Jahre 1784.” Kant-Studien, 73: 261-70.

 —— (1983). “Neue Bildnisse eines Philosophen. Bisher unbekannte Kant-Porträts aus ostpreußischem Familienbesitz.” Das Ostpreußenblatt, 12 Nov. 1983, Folge 46, p. 9.

Malter briefly discusses three newly discovered images of Kant: (1) by Gräfin Charlotte Caroline Amalia von Keyserling (c. 1755-60)[Bayerischen Staatsbibliothek München], (2) Kant minature by J. S. M Lowe [privately owned], (3) portrait drawing in a student Stammbuch, whose name was Baltruschatis (recently purchased by the Universitätsbibliothek Mains from an antiquities dealer.

 —— (1992). “Kant-Ikonographie.” Kant-Studien, 83.1: 125.

Malter briefly mentions: (1) a new miniature watercolor of Kant (Breysig, after Vernet), (2) the Schleuen engraving, and (3) a new publication reproducing several miniatures by Countess Caroline Keyserling, which appear to depict Kant at her dinner table (on this see: Malter 1981).

Meusel, Johann Georg (1808-9). Teutsches Künstlerlexikon, oder Verzeichniß der jetztlebenden Teutschen Künstler, 2nd ed. (Lemgo: Meyer), vol. 1 (1808), vol. 2 (1809).

Artist entries for: Abramson, Bardou, Bause, Berger, Claar[?], Döppler, Hagemann, Liebe, Lowe, Mattersperger, and Schnorr.

Minden, David (1868). “Vortrag über Porträts und Abbildungen Kants.” Schriften der physikalisch-ökonomischen Gesellschaft zu Königsberg (Königsberg), vol. 9, Sitzungsberichte, pp. 24-34.

The first attempt at a catalog of Kant images, Minden distinguishes them as either original portraits or copies (engravings, etc.), and of the former he finds five groups: (1) Becker, (2) Lowe, (3) Schnorr, (4) Döbbler, and (5) Vernet.

Mühlpfordt, Herbert Meinhard (1970). Königsberger Skulpturen und ihre Meister, 1255-1945 (Würzburg: Holzner Verlag), 299 pp.

Volume 46 of Ostdeutsche Beiträge aus dem Göttinger Arbeitskreis. The author gives entries of the following Kant-related sculptures/reliefs:
Abraham Abramson (1754-1811): 1784/medallion; 1804/medallion.
Emanuel Bardou (1744-1818): 1798/marble bust.
Erna Becker (1895-): 1924/medallion.
Stanislaus Cauer: early 20th c./bust.
Collin: 1782-84/Plakette; 1782/medallion.
Luise Federn: 1924/Kantplakette.
Carl Gottfrief Hagemann (1773-1806): 1801/bust.
Katharine Krau (1889-): 1924/copy of Hagemann bust.
Friedrich Daniel Loos (1735-1819): 1804/medallion.
Joseph Mattersberger (1754-1825): 1790/bust.
Christian Daniel Rauch (1777-1857): 1864/bronze statue, copy of Friedrichsdenkmal.
Emile Rogat (1799-1852): 1825/medallion, copy of Schnorr.
Siegmund Schütz (1906-): 1939/plakette.
Rudolf Leopold Siemering (1835-1905): 1892/marble bust.
Hans Wissel (1897-1948): 1945/bust.
Albert Moritz Wolff (1854-1923): 1904/medallion.

The author lists the 1784 Abramson medal as created on the occasion of Kant’s death.

Muirhead, J. H. (1927). “How Hegel Came to England.” Mind, 36: 423-47.

Reicke, Rudolf (1860). Kantiana. Beiträge zu Immanuel Kants Leben und Schriften (Königsberg: Th. Theile), vi, 83 pp.

Special reprint of Rudolf Reicke, “Kantiana.” Neuen Preußischen Provinzial-Blättern, Third Series, 5: 97-176 (1860).

Wald offers a short list of Kant icons near the end of his memorial talk (p. 25): "Sein Bildniß ist vor dem 20. Bande der Allg. deutschen Bibliothek, vor dem 39. Bande der neeun Bibliothek der schönen Wissenschaften, von Lips vor dem 1. Bande des Jenaischen Literatur-Repertoriums, wie auch von Bause in Leipzig in Kupfer gestochen worden. Einige Studirende, zum Theil jüdischer Nation ließen ihm zu Ehren eine große golden Medaille prägen, und an Statt des Honorars überreichen. Sie hatte jedoch nich seinen Beifall, weil sein Bildniß nicht getroffen und sein Geburtsjahr unrichtig angegeben war. Das Abramson ohnlängst eine andere Denkmünze auf ihn geprägt und sie mit Zöllner's passender Inschrift: altius volantem arcuit, versehen hat, kann keinem Verehrer Kant's gleichgültig sein. Wäre nur sein Kopf richtiger gezeichnet!
Seine Büste von Hagemann, Schadow's würdigem Schüler, ein Beweis der Achtung und Liebe seiner Freunde und Schüler, ermuntern uns, dem großen Lehrer in der Erforschung der Wahrheit, in der Thätigkeit für Alles, was gut und edel ist, nachzuahmen."

 —— and Ernst Wichert (unsigned editorial note) (1898). “Ein bisher unbekanntes Kant-Bildniss.” Altpreussische Monatsschrift, 35: 195-98.

Discusses the Dresden 1790 portrait.

Richter, G. and R. Malter (1981). “{title?}.” Kant-Studien, 72: 261-269.

Rohde, Alfred (1929). Königsberg Pr. (Leipzig: Klinkhardt & Bierman Verlag) [126 p.]

Scheffler, W. (1987). “Von Königsberg nach Marbach. Ein Porträt Immanuel Kants.” Jahrbuch der deutschen Schiller-Gesellschaft, 31: 513-518.

Scheffner, Johann Georg (1816; publ. 1823). Mein Leben wie ich, Johann George Scheffner, es selbst beschrieben (Leipzig, 1823), 512 pp. + 32 unnumbered pages of appendices + 21 numbered pages of “printing errors and omissions.”

Schneiders, Werner (2000). “Ein vergessenes Kant-Portrait.” Kant-Studien 91: 1-7.

Includes an illustration of a 1794 miniature by Charles Vernet.

Schopenhauer, Arthur (1987). Gesammelte Briefe. Ed. Arthur Hübscher, 2nd ed. (Bonn: Vouvier Verlag Herbert Grundmann), xii, 732 pp.

In a letter to Karl Rosenkranz (25 Sep 1837), Schopenhauer describes meeting with the painter Johann Michael Lowe, in which Lowe’s painting of Kant is mentioned as well as engravings by Bause, Thilo, Lips, and Haas.

Schöndörffer, Otto. “Das Kantzimmer in Königsberg.” Reichls Philosophischer Almanach auf das Jahr 1924. Ed. Paul Feldkeller (op cit.). 227-35.

Provides a description of the Kant room, which was located in the Albertinum, the old university building next to the cathedral, including a discussion of the various Kant images on display.

Schultz, Uwe (1965). Kant (Reinbek bei Hamburg: Rowohlt Taschenbuch Verlag), 190 pp.

Volume 101 of the Rowohlts Monographien series, which offers brief biographies with many contemporary images. Döbler(a) is on the cover, Collins (p. 6), Keyserling (p. 17), Schnorr (p. 20), Hagemann-sketch(b)(p. 27), Berger engraving from Puttrich (p. 48 and back cover), Becker(a)(p. 60), Becker(c)(p. 61), Senewaldt(b)(p. 105), Stein (pp. 108-9), Townley engraving from Lowe (p. 116), Bause engraving from Schnorr (p. 118), Haas engraving from the lost Stägemann (p. 128), Bardou (p. 160). One finds occasional dating errors.

Stägemann, Elisabeth von (1846). Erinnerungen für edle Frauen. Nebst Lebensnachrichten über die Verfasserin und einem Anhange von Briefen. Two volumes. Edited by Wilhelm Dorow. Leipzig: J. C. Hinrichs. [vol. 1: xxiv, (2), 240 p.; vol. 2: 282 p.]

The editorial preface offers a brief biography of Stägemann and mentions Kant and her portrait of him, and his response (in a now lost letter to Reichardt): “Ja, ja das bin ich.”. The selection of her correspondence includes two letters (November 1 and December 17, 1796) from J. F. Reichardt in which he requests her, and then thanks her, for a portrait of Kant (vol. 1, pp. 222-26).

Stark, Werner (1991). “Erläuterungen zum Kant-Bildnis.” In: Marie Rischmüller, ed., Bemerkungen in den “Beobachtungen über das Gefühl des Schönen und Erhabenen” (Hamburg: Felix Meiner 1991), pp. 291-94.

Concerns an ink sketch, copied from Becker 1768, and found in two separate sets of student notes from Kant’s lectures: the an-Pillau Physical Geography and the an-Pillau Anthropology. Both of these volumes have the ink drawing of Kant on the inside of a second endpaper (this drawing resembles a copper engraving, but the images differ slightly in the two volumes). The original from which these were copied is not clear, and may have been an amalgam, including the Becker portrait. A reproduction of the Physical Geography drawing can be found on p. ix of the Kant-Forschungen volume.

Stolovich, Leonid N. (2014). “On the Fate of Kant Collection at Tartu.” Kant-Online [http://www.kant-online.ru], accessed 6 Feb 2015.

Vaihinger, Hans (1898a). “Die Kantmedaille mit dem schiefen Turm von Pisa.” Kant-Studien, 2: 109-15.

Discusses the 1784 Abramson medallion.

 —— (1898b). “Ein neues Kantbildnis.” Kant-Studien, 2: 142.

Discusses Countess Amalie von Keyserling’s chalk drawing of Kant. Vaihinger believes that this was done sometime before the spring of 1755, which would make it our oldest surviving image of Kant, from when he was about 30 years old; but see Anderson [1943], who argues that the image stems from the 1770's.

 —— (1898c). “Wieder ein neues Kantbild.” Kant-Studien, 2: 490-91.

—— (1899a). “Der Pillauer Kantfund.” Kant-Studien, 3: 253-55.

 —— (1899b). “Wiederauffindung des ältesten Oelbildes von Kant.” Kant-Studien, 3: 255.

Reports the re-emergence of Becker(c), the painting that Kanter commissioned, and had hanging in his bookshop.

 —— (1899c). “Ein Vernet’sches Kantbild.” Kant-Studien, 3: 256.

Reports the gift by a Herr Claass of a Vernet painting to the city of Königsberg. {Not sure which one...}

 —— (1899d). “Ein new aufgefundenes Miniaturbild von Kant.” Kant-Studien, 3: 370-72.

Discusses the Puttrich-Warda miniature — a composition blending the Puttrich full-body profile with a Vernet 3/4 profile of the head. Vaihinger notes that it measures 3 x 1.7 cm, with a framing of 7.9 x 6.4 cm., possibly on ivory; and on the back: "Bildniss des Philosophen J. Kant, gemalt in Königsberg. Geschenck meines Freundes Metzger aus Königsberg. Hdlbrg 1806. H. H. Moser."

 —— (1900a). “Wieder ein neues Kantbild.” Kant-Studien, 4: 355-56.

An 80 x 65 mm miniature that was last purchased from the Rosenthal Antiquities dealer (Munich).

In a note at the end, Vaihinger reports the discovery of a second drawing by Senewaldt — this is the drawing that Clasen reproduces [1924]. Both drawings are nearly identical, differing only slightly in size and pictorial details.

 —— (1900b). “Minaturbildnis Kants im Besitze von A. Warda in Königsberg i. Pr.” Kant-Studien, 4: 475-76.

Discusses the version of the Puttrich image (Kant in full profile, painted on a piece of ivory) that at the time was in the possession of Arthur Warda, and was reproduced in a plate following p. 360 of Kant-Studien, vol. 4.; see also his [1899c] and [1906].

 —— (1901a). “Die neue Kantbüste in der Berliner Siegesallee.” Kant-Studien, 5: 138-41.

 —— (1901b). “Das Helmholtz-Zeller’sche Kantbild.” Kant-Studien, 5: 143-44.

This is one of Vernet’s miniatures; an illustration is given in the volume.

 —— (1901c). “Das Simon’sche Kantbild.” Kant-Studien, 6: 110-12.

This is the Becker(b) painting that Kant owned.

 —— (1901d). “‘Kant und seine Tischgenossen’.” Kant-Studien, 6: 112-13.

 —— (1901e). “Nochmals die Kantbüste in der Berliner Siegesallee.” Kant-Studien, 6: 114-15.

 —— (1902a). “Ein bisher unbekanntes Kantbildnis.” Kant-Studien, 7: 168.

Seeks to identify a plaster bas-relief (later discovered to be the Collin Relief — see Vaihinger 1902b), and includes a physical description and discussion of its provenance.

 —— (1902b). “Das Collin'sche Kantrelief.” Kant-Studien, 7: 382-84.

Identifies the plaster bas-relief discussed in Vaihinger (1902a) as one produced by P. H. Collin.

 —— (1902c). “Nochmals das Collin'sche Kantrelief.” Kant-Studien, 7: 505.

Among other things briefly recounts information provided in Brinkmann [1896] on P. H. Collin and his 1782 bas-relief of Kant.

 —— (1904). “Erklärung der vier Beilagen.” Kant-Studien, 9: 342-3.

 —— (1906). “Das Puttrichsche Kantbild.” Kant-Studien, 11: 140, 292.

On p. 140, Vaihinger discusses the engraving based on Puttrich’s full-body profile that he reproduced as the frontispiece of that issue; such engravings were available as early as 1798, but the location of the original was unknown. On p. 292, he notes that the original is owned by the Altertums-Gesellschaft Prussia (in Königsberg) — and which he had himself mentioned six years earlier in vol 4 of Kant-Studien.

 —— (1909a). “Das Original von Schnorrs Kantbild.” Kant-Studien, 14: 143.

 —— (1909b). “Eine Kopie des Kantbildes in Königsberger Museum.” Kant-Studien, 14: 568-69.

Vorländer, Karl (1924). Immanuel Kant: Der Mann und das Werk. 2 vols. (Leipzig: Felix Meiner). Vol. I: xii, 430 pp.; vol. II: vi, 404 pp.

Warda, Arthur (1900). “Eine historische Kant-Silhouette.” Altpreussische Monatsschrift, 37: 141-42.

Discusses the Hippel silhouette, and includes an illustration.

 —— (1905). “Das Kant-Bildnis Elisabeths von Stägemann.” Altpreussische Monatsschrift, 42: 305-10.

Weinhandl, Ferdinant (1937). “Zur erstmaligen Veröffentlichung der bisher unbekannten Kant-Miniatur von Springer, aus dem Besitz des Barons Heinrich von Hammer-Purgstall, Schloß Hainfeld/Steiermark.” Kant-Studien, 42: 325-27.

Concerns a recently (1937) discovered miniature of Kant, in oil, that appears to be a copy of a Vernet miniature, signed "Springer pinx. 1765". The '1765' is puzzling. Clasen suggested the painter might have been Friedrich Wilhelm Springer (1760-1805) who lived in Königsberg, and so could well have had personal contact with Kant.

Will, Georg Andreas (1788). Vorlesungen über die Kantische Philosophie (Altdorf: Monathischen Verlag), 200 pp.

Mentions the Schleuen engraving (pp. 15-16).