|KANT IN THE CLASSROOM Materials to aid the study of Kant’s lectures|
Links to Internet Resources for Translating Kant
Below are the internet resources discussed or mentioned in Steve Naragon, “Internet Resources for Translating Kant” (2018) [pdf]. That essay briefly considers the following kinds of resources:
(1) the source text (early and critical editions) [→Digital Texts],
(2) previous translations, along with reviews and discussions of those translations [→Digital Catalogs], and
(3) dictionaries relevant to 18th century German, and lexicons and glossaries specific to Kant’s texts [→Digital Dictionaries and Lexicons].
The focus is on translation, but translating Kant also involves understanding the philosophical world in which the text was written, and that involves some basic historical research. Thus, most of these links extend beyond the relatively narrow confines of simple translation issues.
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A complete list of Kant’s published writings is available on the present website, as well as a growing bibliography of Kant translations, listed by individual work and arranged chronologically by the publication date (first of the Kant text and then of the translation). Thirty-nine languages are represented so far, and each entry is color-coded and tagged with an abbreviation of the language to facilitate searching.
This bibliography aims to include the first edition of each translation, as well as significant revisions and cross-referencing these in a note following the entries. When reviews of the translation have been found, they are collected in their own list as well as indicated with the translation reviewed.
Most translations are published separately as articles or as stand-alone books, but many appear in small collections of translated writings of Kant or in more comprehensive “collected works of Kant in translation,” and these are grouped separately, with separate entries for each item in these collections included in the main list of translations.
Many helpful discussions of translation issues occur in the published reviews of translations, of which there is also a working list.
Several other bibliographies are also being compiled alongside that of the translations, namely: Bibliographies of … bibliographies of translations, … reviews of translations, … books and articles on translating Kant, … articles on specific Kant translation projects, … books and articles on Kant studies, or the reception of Kant, in a particular language or country.
The links in the section immediately below concern the Academy edition of Kant’s gesammelte Schriften, for which there is a detailed overview on the present website.
[top] Digital Texts of Books and Periodicals
Kant’s gesammelte Schriften
Das Bonner Kant-Korpus: Prepared by the Institut für Kommunikationsforschung und Phonetik at the Universität Bonn, this is a page- and line-true fully searchable digital version of vols. 1-23 of the Academy edition of Kant’s gesammelte Schriften (i.e., everything but the lecture notes). [Caution: While an excellent resource, this transcription should always be checked against the printed Academy edition.]
• A useful search engine of vols. 1-23.
• Complete list of Kant’s printed correspondence (with links to the letters).
• An online and linked version of the 1969 Personenindex to Kant’s writings.
The site also includes online versions of various other texts, including five textbooks used by Kant:
• Achenwall’s Juris Naturalis (1763).
• Eberhard’s Vorbereitung zur natürlichen Theologie (1781).
• Meier’s Auszug aus der Vernunftlehre (1752).
BBAW Online Editions
The Berlin-Brandenburgische Akademie der Wissenschaften (BBAW) currently offers four online editions of Kant texts, the first two of which offer improved versions of texts otherwise available as part of the Bonner Kant-Korpus (above), while the latter two involve student notes from Kant’s lectures (division four of the Academy edition).
• Metaphysische Anfangsgründe der Tugendlehre: Eine Synopse der Auflagen 1797 und 1803 [website].
• Opus Postumum [website].
• Vorlesungen über Physische Geographie [website].
• The Herder Notes from Immanuel Kant’s Lectures [website].
The following links help locate early editions of Kant’s writings and related texts from the 18th century (along with, of course, about 9 billion other things)
Biblioteca Digital Hispánica: The digital collection of the Biblioteca Nacional de España has 218 thousand items available online.
DDB (Deutsche Digitale Bibliothek): This is a national portal to access digitized versions of cultural artifacts: books, images, sculptures, music, films, scores. The materials presented have all been curated by the member institutions (over 4000 and growing). Its fully developed version went online in 2014. Search results occur in a common window; clicking on a hit will open a page with basic data on the item, and the opportunity, for instance, to click-through to the appropriate page of the instutition holding the item.
Digital Archive of 18th Century German Texts: Compiled by The Kant Research Group at The University of Western Ontario, this is a nicely formatted collection of links connected to digital texts in GoogleBooks and elsewhere. Several related projects are also to be found here, and these are equally well-formatted: Kant’s Books (compiling links to digital texts of books listed in the Warda 1922 bibliography or that we otherwise have good reason to believe that Kant owned or had read) and Women Intellectuals of Eighteenth-Century Germany.
DDZ (Dresden Digitalisierungs Zentrum): The digital collection of the Sächsische Landesbibliothek – Staats- und Universitätsbibliothek Dresden (SLUB), with over 100,000 titles and 1.8 million graphic media available for download
DTA (Deutschen Textarchivs): Intended as the “basis for a reference corpus of the New High German language” – an initiative of the Berlin-Brandenburg Academy of Sciences – the DTA has a growing body of scanned, annotated, and downloadable texts dating from the 17th through the 19th centuries (3848 texts, as of this writing).
e|rara: The platform for digitized rare books from Swiss libraries. Over 70 thousand titles currently available (2019) of rare books and prints from the 15th to the 20th century, with “full-text searching” available for texts published after 1800. The browsing platform is especially well designed, and available in German, English, French, and Italian.
Gallica: The digital library of the Bibliothèque nationale de France (with holdings from over 300 partner libraries) and online since 1997, Gallica currently has nearly five million documents available (manuscripts, maps, musical scores, and other print media, images, video, sound files). Materials can be viewed online or downloaded.
GoogleBooks: The world’s largest collection of digitized books, by a wide margin (25 million titles back in 2015). It has been online, in some form, since 2004. Books free of copyright protection may be downloaded; others have a "Preview" or "Snippet View", where limited word searches within the text are still possible. [Google Advanced Book Search]
HathiTrust: Founded in 2008 by a group of North American universities, now with 140 institutional members, the majority in North America. Over 60 of these members have contributed data to the collection, resulting in a total of almost 17 million items, one-half of which are book titles.
The interface to the manuscripts allows for easy online use of the texts. Individual pages may be downloaded as PDF files; downloading entire volumes requires the individual to hold an account through a subscribing institution. The majority of holdings are in the English language, although 400 languages are represented. [Advanced Catalog Search]
Internet Archive: A non-profit library of digitized books, movies, software, music, and websites. Online since 1996, with an original goal of archiving what was then a rather new invention – “the internet” and its ephemera. It currently archives 279 billion web pages, but now also includes books and texts (11 million), audio recordings (4 million) videos (3 million), images (1 million), and software programs (100,000) – all free for downloading.
MDZ (Münchener Digitalisierungs Zentrum): The digital library of the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (BSB), with over 900,000 titles available for download. This database is also accessed through the ZVDD and the DDB.
WDL (World Digital Library): A project of the U.S. Library of Congress, in collaboration with a long list of institutions around the world, representing 193 countries and 145 languages. The collection (as of 2019) incldues prints/photographs (9,491), newspapers (3,561), books (2,195), manuscripts (1,695), journals (1,067), maps (1,059), and a handful of sound recordings and motion pictures.
ZVDD (Zentrales Verzeichnis Digitalisierter Drucke): The portal for all digitized German publications, coordinated by the AG Sammlung Deutscher Drucke [see] and the Niedersächsische Staats- und Universitätsbibliothek Göttingen [see]. The number of available titles (as of November 29, 2018) is 1,671,744. Volumes can be found by title, author, publisher, place of publication, publication date (or a range of dates). The texts may be read in a DFG-Viewer or downloaded.
From the book trade, for a physical copy
AbeBooks (US): Begun in 1995, this clearing-house for used books was bought by Amazon in 2008, and has complementary sites for other markets/languages: .uk, .it, .de, .fr, IberLibro.com (Spanish language), and ZBAB (Zentrales Verzeichnis antiquarischer Bücher, for German rare books).
German (and other) Periodicals
Journals of the German Enlightenment: This is one of a number of collections that make up the Retrospektive Digitalisierungwissenschaftlicher Rezensionsorgane und Literaturzeitschriften des 18. und 19. Jahrhunderts aus dem deutschen Sprachraum website, sponsored by the Universität-Bielefeld Bibliothek, the Göttingen Academy of Sciences, and the Georg Olms Verlag. This collection of journals includes:
• Allgemeine deutsche Bibliothek, edited by F. Nicolai (Berlin / Stettin, 1765-94).
• Berlinische Monatsschrift, edited by J. E. Biester and F. Gedike (Berlin, 1783-1811).
• Briefe, die Neueste Litteratur betreffend, edited by G. E. Lessing, M. Mendelssohn, and F. Nicolai (Berlin / Stettin, 1759-66).
• Hamburgisches Magazin, edited by A. G. Kaestner and J. A. Unzer (Hamburg, 1747-1763).
• Der Philosoph für die Welt, edited by J. J. Engel (Leipzig, 1775-1777).
• Philosophische Bibliothek, edited by Johann Georg Heinrich Feder and Christoph Meiners, 4 volumes (Göttingen, 1788-1791).
• Der Teutsche Merkur, edited by C. M. Wieland (Weimar, 1773-89).
digiPress: The periodical portal of the Bayerischen Staatsbibliothek, with digital holdings of 1056 periodical titles (as of December 2018). It appears as though digiPress is not digitizing any titles already available in the Journals of the German Enlightenment collection above. One especially important journal for Kant studies that digiPress has made available is the Allgemeine Literatur-Zeitung. A calendar interface allows the user to quickly move through different issues.
• Göttingische Zeitungen von gelehrten Sachen (1732-52) / Göttingische Anzeigen von gelehrten Sachen (1753-1801) / Göttingische gelehrte Anzeigen (1802-1922), edited by Albrecht von Haller, etc. (Göttingen, 1739-).
UrMEL Journals: The Thüringer Universitäts- und Landesbibliothek Jena (ThULB) offers digital access to a collection of 1539 periodicals. The body of texts can be searched directly, and the periodical titles can be browsed alphabetically and filtered by type (Addressbücher, Kalendarian, Paramentsschriften, Zeitschriften, Zeitungen) and subject matter. As a sample, here is their access page to the Allgemeine Literatur-Zeitung.
Wochentliche Königsbergische Frag- und Anzeigungs-Nachrichten: issues from 1752, 1753, 1754, courtesy of the Wielkopolska Library.
[top] Digital Catalogs of Books (and Periodicals)
[Links for checking the existence and availability of books, in particular any previous translations of a text.]
BNE: The Biblioteca Nacional de España is the national repository library of Spain with a catalog of 26 million items.
BnF: The Bibliothéque nationale de France is the national repository library of France. Total records: over 15 million items.
COPAC: The Consortium of Online Public Access Catalogues combines the catalogs of over 100 major UK and Irish libraries, and includes the holdings of the British Library. Total records: 40 million, representing 452 languages (2018).
DNB: The Deutsche Nationalbibliothek maintains a complete catalog of all German and German-language publications after 1913, including translations of these publications. Total records: 34.2 million (2018).
GVK: The Gemeinsamer Verbundkatalog brings together the records of about 530 libraries to allow a search across 43.5 million distinct titles. Total records: 113.7 million (2018).
Index Translationum: This database has been overseen by UNESCO since 1946, having been founded in 1932 by the League of Nations. The online database includes translations from UNESCO member states published between 1979 and 2009; earlier works are recorded in print editions of the Index Translationum. (As of March 2019, the website appears to be under construction, with many pages available only in archive format.)
KVK: The Karlsruher Virtueller Katalog was first developed in 1996. This search engine brings together the catalogs of research libraries in German-speaking lands offering a record base of over 600 million books, but the search interface also allows the user to select from dozens of catalog systems world-wide, including WorldCat, and even the major catalogs from the book trade like abebooks, Amazon, and ZVAB (Zentrales Verzeichnis antiquarischer Bücher).
LoC: The Library of Congress is the national repository library of the United States. Total records: over 17 million.
PORBASE: The Base Nacional de Dados Bibliográficos (PORBASE) is the online union catalog for Portugal. Managed by the Biblioteca Nacional de Portugal (BNP), it collects together the holdings of over 170 Portuguese libraries.
SBN: The OPAC SBN is the online public access catalog (OPAC) of the the Italian Union Catalog (Catalogo del Servizio Bibliotecario Nazionale). Total records: over 17 million.
TEL: The European Library is (or was) the “portal to the 48 national libraries of Europe.” This platform was frozen at the end of 2016 and no further updates have been made, and perhaps that is why there has always been a very slow connection to the server; the catalog-base and the search interface are quite useful, however, and almost worth the wait. Its records can presumably still be searched through the Europeana portal, but I’ve yet to discover how this is done. Total records: over 175 million.
WorldCat: This “world catalog” is the largest of all the online book-title databases. Administered by the Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) and with 72,000 participating libraries. Total records: over 2 billion.
ZDB: The Zeitschriften Datenbank, or German Union Catalogue of Serials catalogs, according to its website, nearly 17 million holdings from 3700 German and Austrian libraries. This includes 1.9 million title records, 282 thousand monograph series, 63 thousand newspapers, and 214 thousand e-journals. Administered by the Deutsche Nationalbibliothek and the Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin Stiftung Preußischer Kulturbesitz.
[top] Dictionaries, Translators, Lexicons, Encyclopedia, and a Concept Database