Name Index

All individuals appearing in Herder’s notes – whether historical or fictional – are listed here. Clicking on a citation opens that text in a separate small window.

A[ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ]

Aaron of Alexandria

(died c.665 CE) Greek presbyter and physician from Alexandria, active in the 7th century. He is said to have written 30 books on medicine and was the first to mention both small pox and measles. He is identified in the notes as a ‘Greek physician’.

PG: Winds(4°)-6*


A character from the Bible. The Hebrew word ‘Abaddon’ refers both to the bottomless abyss and to the angel of that abyss.

MO: 43(B)-17

Abd al-Rahman ibn Abd Allah al-Ghafiqi

(6??-732) Died in the Battle of Tours having unsuccessfully led a Muslim Umayyad army into battle against the Christian army of Charles Martel.

PG: Animals(8°)-5

Abraham a Sancta Clara

(1644-1709) Born Johann Ulrich Megerle, he joined the religious order of Discalced Augustinians and assumed a new name; he was a well-known Catholic author.

MP: RP/NT 763-B1

Abyssinia, King of

See: Dawit II

Achmet Abdalla

See: Amed Abdalla, Bassa of Suez


Character from the Hebrew Bible; the first human being.

PG: History(8°)-7; Humans(8°)-4

Addison, Joseph

(1672-1719) English author and critic; with Richard Steele (an Irish playwright and politician) he published a London daily, The Spectator (1711-1712; German: 1739-44), re-published in seven volumes with an eventual 8th volume appearing from a revival of the paper in 1714. Prior to this they had published The Tattler (1709-11).

MP: EP 531-B5

Adrovandi, Ulisse

(1522-1605) Italian naturalist, created the botanical garden in Bologna (1568) and maintained one of the largest curiousity cabinets of Europe.

VA: Physics-D1


(mid-6th century BCE) Legendary Greek fabulist.

MP: EP 531-A10

Agricola, Georg

(1495-1555) German mineralogist, physician, and historian.

PG: Land(8°)-3


Destructive spirit of Zorastrianism, also known as Angra Mainyu.

MP: NT 844-A1

Albertus Magnus

See: Magnus, Albertus

Albuquerque, Afonso de

(1453-1515) Portuguese naval explorer instrumental in advancing Christian interests in the face of Islam, exploring and securing trade routes for spices, and developing a Portuguese presence along the coast of western India (present-day Kerala and Goa), where he served as governor from 1509-1515.

PG: Rivers(4°)-9


(c.450-404 BCE) Athenian general and associate of Socrates, portrayed in various Platonic dialogues as well as in Xenophon, Thucydides, and other ancient sources. Handsome and treacherous, he changed allegiances several times during the Peloponnesian Wars.

In: HollAbh,

Alexander, der Große

(356-323 BCE) Macedonian king and world-conqueror.

MP: RP/NT 763-A13

MO: 43(B)-7

PG: Oceans(8°)-7; Oceans(4°)-9

Ali ibn Abu Talib

(601-661) Cousin and son-in-law to Muhammad and ruled as the fourth caliph (656-661), viewed by Shia Muslims as the proper successor to Muhammad.

LO: 37-2


(786-833) Abu al-Abbas Abdallah ibn Harun al-Rashid, or al-Ma’mun, was a celebrated astronomer and the 7th Abbasid Caliph (813-33), under whose caliphate, eventually centered in Baghdad, the writings of Aristotle and other Greeks were translated into Arabic – al-Kindi (c.800-870) being the best known of these translators.

PG: Intro(8°)-2*; Intro(4°)-2

Altmann, Johann Georg

(1695-1758). Swiss theologian, philologist, and historian. He wrote Versuch einer historischen und physischen Beschreibung der helvetischen Eisbergen (Zürich 1751).

PG: Land(4°)-16, -19

Amed Abdalla, Bassa of Suez

(14th century) Amed Abdalla, Bassa of Suez (and the story of the dolphin) appears to originate in Kircher (Mundus Subterraneus, p. 87). The event discussed there was to have occurred in 1342.

PG: Oceans(8°)-10; Oceans(4°)-14


(c.580-c.495 BCE) Greek lyric poet, from Teos.

MP: EP 531-A14

Anjou, Herzog von [?]

The referent might be either Friedrich of Naples (1452-1504) or Francis, Duke of Anjou (1555-84).

PG: Winds(4°)-8*

Anson, George

(1697-1762) British Admiral; circumnavigated the globe (1740-46), recounting this in his Voyage Round the World, 3rd edition (London 1748).

PG: Oceans(8°)-8

Apollonius of Tyana

(c.15-c.100) Greek Neo-Pythagorean philosopher, in later centuries he was revered as a god, and in his moral lifestyle and miracle-working he was often compared with and opposed to Jesus of Nazareth. Bayle devotes several pages to Appolonius in his Dictionary.

MP: RP/NT 763-A13

Arabicus, Moses

See: Maimonides, Moses

Archimedes of Syracuse

(288-212 BCE) Ancient Greek mathematician, physicist, and engineer. Lived in the Greek colony of Syracuse on modern day Sicily.

VA: Mathematics-A3

Argens, Jean-Baptiste de Boyer, Marquis d’

See: D’Argens, Jean-Baptiste de Boyer, Marquis


(384-322 BCE) Macedonian philosopher, student and then colleague of Plato's, eventually forming his own school (the Lyceum) just outside the walls of Athens. Warda’s list of Kant’s library holdings includes a Greek/Latin 8° edition of Aristotelis opera.

MP: Prol-1; EP 531-A2, -A11

PG: Oceans(4°)-12

LO: 37-2, -3

VA: Physics-D1; Mathematics-A6

Arnaud, Vincent [Arnold]

(c.1660-1730’s?) Originally from Marseilles, he was serving as the harbor master (or a “French merchant”) in Malta when Topal Osman (see) arrived in chains, and with whom he became a life-long friend.

MO: 43(B)-7


See: Arnaud, Vincent

Artemidorus Daldianus

(2nd Century BCE) From Ephesus; wrote a five-volume work on the interpretation of dreams, the Oneirocritikon.

MP: EP 531-B1

Arzt, französisch

(18th century) French physician who opposed inoculating the population for small pox; possibly Guillaume-Joseph de L’Épine (1703-1783).

PG: Winds(8°)-3*; Winds(4°)-7*


MO: 43(D)-25

PG: Humans(8°)-0

Averroes (Ibn Rushd)

(1126-1198) Muslim philosopher, judge, and court physician to the Almohad Caliphate in the Iberian penninsula. Referred to as “The Commentator” in the Latin west because of his three sets of commentaries on the works of Aristotle.

LO: 37-2

Avicenna (Ibn Sina)

(980-1037) Muslim Persian philosopher and physician.

LO: 37-2

Avril, Philippe

(1654-1698) French Jesuit, professor of mathematics, travelled in Asia, presumably died in a shipwreck during his travels. Voyage en divers États d’Europe et d’Asie (Paris 1693; German: 1705).

PG: Intro(8°)-1

B[ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ]

Bacon, Sir Francis (1st Baron Verulam Viscount of St. Albans)

(1561-1626) English philosopher and politician. Kant’s library included Bacon’s Opervm moralivm et civilivm tomus (London 1638), and the Critique of Pure Reason, 2nd edition, begins with a motto from Bacon’s Instauratio Magna.

MP: Prol-1

Bacon, Roger

(c.1214-1294) English philosopher and scientist.

VA: Physics-D1

Barentsz, Willem

(c.1550-1597) Dutch navigator, cartographer, and Arctic explorer in search of a Northeast passage; he died while returning from his third Arctic expedition, having been stranded with his crew on Novaya Zemlya (Nova Zembla) for almost a year.

PG: Land(4°)-8

Barthélemy, Jean-Jacques

(1716-1795) Jesuit-trained French scholar, philologist, numismatician, and having attended a Lazarist seminary, was known as Abbé Barthélmey (in the Herder notes indicated as ‘P. Barthélemy’). Fellow of the Royal Society of London (1755), member of the Académie française (1789). Author of Reise des jungen Anacharsis durch Griechenland (French: 1788; German: 1789-1793)

PG: Asia(8°)-1

Basedow, Johann Bernhard

(1724-1790) German educational reformer, he founded the Philanthropinum in Dessau, which Kant publicly promoted, and which was based on Rousseau’s pedagogical ideas as presented in his Émile (1762).

MO: 43(D)-18

Baß von Suez

See: Amed Abdalla, Bassa of Suez

Baumeister, Friedrich Christian

(1709-1785) German Wolffian philosopher; studied at Jena and Wittenberg, lectured at Wittenberg and in 1736 assumed the rectorship at the Görlitz Gymnasium. He wrote several popular textbooks, including Philosophia definitiva (1733) and Philosophia recens controversa (1738). Kant used his Institutiones metaphysicae (1736) for his course on metaphysics during his first few years as a lecturer, before switching to Baumgarten’s Metaphysica.


Baumgarten, Alexander Gottlieb [“Autor”]

(1714-1762) German Wolffian philosopher; studied at Halle where he began his lecturing career, moved to Frankfurt/Oder beginning summer 1740. Kant’s library included Baumgarten’s Acroasis logica (1761), Metaphysica, 3rd ed. (1750) and 4th ed. (1757), Initia philosophiae practicae primae acroamatice (1760), and Ethica philosophica (1740), 21751, 31763 – which edition he owned is not known.

MP: Ont 180-1, 2, 3, OC-A4, -A6, -A8, -B1, -B4, -B6, -C1, -C2, -C4, -C7, -C9, -C11, -D5, -D6, -D7, -D8, -D9, -D10, -D12, -D13, -D14; EP 531-A6, -A9, -A13, -B1, -B4, -B6; EP 682-A4; RP/NT 763-A4, -A15, -C1, -E2, -E3; RP/NT 796-2; NT 844-A1

MO: 42(A)-5; 43(B)-2, -4, -5, -7, -8; 43(D)-2

Bayle, Pierre

(1647-1706) French Huguenot philosopher and author of the influential Dictionnaire historique et critique (1702), translated into German by Luise Gottsched (Leipzig 1741-44).

MP: NT 844-A1

MO: 43(D)-19

Bekker, Balthasar

(1634-1698) Amsterdam preacher in the Dutch Reformed Church and a Cartesian rationalist, he was an early opponent of the superstition that supported the persecution of so-called witches, writing De Beoverde Weereld (1691) (German: Die bezauberte Welt, 1693; English: The World Bewitched, 1695).

MP: RP/NT 763-C2

Bel, Matthias

(1684-1749) Hungarian pastor and historian, member of the Royal Society of London and the Berlin Academy (since 1722).

PG: Land(8°)-4


Likely a reference to Iwan IV, Wasijewitsch (1530-1584), Russian Tsar (1547-84), called “the terrible.” He is referred to as ‘Basilowitz’ in the Philippi physical geography notes (ms. p. 53).

PG: Rivers(4°)-9

Bentley, Richard

(1662-1742) English theologian, among whose writings included The Folly and Unreasonableness of Atheism: Demonstrated from the Advantage and Pleasure of a Religious Life, the Faculties of Human Souls, the Structure of Animate Bodies, & the Origin and Frame of the World: in Eight Sermons (London 1692).

MP: EP 531-A9

Berkeley, George

(1685-1753) Anglo-Irish philosopher and cleric. Berkeley's Philosophische Werke (Leipzig 1781) was in Kant’s library, published after these notes. A German edition of Berkeley’s Siris – in which he promoted the many benefits of tar-water – was published in 1745.


Bernhard von Clairvaux

(1090-1153) French abbot whose reforms of the Benedictine order led to the formation of the Cistercian order.

MO: 43(B)-16

Bernier, François

(1620-1688) Physician, traveled in the Orient (1656-68). (Identification uncertain.)

PG: Asia(8°)-6

Bernoulli, Daniel

(1700-1782) Foundational work on hydrodynamics; son of Groningen mathematician Johann Bernoulli and nephew to Jacob Bernoulli; professor of natural sciences at St. Petersburg (1725-33) where he worked with Leonard Euler; later professor in Basel, occupying the chair of physics (1750).

PG: Land(8°)-4; Land(8°)-6

Bilfinger, Georg Bernhard

(1693-1750) Professor at Tübingen, and one of Wolff’s early students. His De harmonia animi et corporis humani maxime praestabilita (1723) offered an early defense of the principle of pre-established harmony.

MP: RP/NT 763-E2

PG: Humans(8°)-3

Blake, Robert

(1599-1657) English admiral, primarily during the Commonwealth, whose work led to the dominance of the later British Royal Navy.

MO: 43(C)-1

PG: Winds(8°)-8; Winds(4°)-12

Boerhaave, Hermann

(1668-1738) Professor of medicine in Leyden (1709), considered the founder of the clinical teaching of medicine. Member of the French Academy of Sciences (1726) and Royal Society of London (1730).

PG: Land(8°)-4; Springs(8°)-3; Springs(4°)-4; History(8°)-4

VA: Physics-A2

Bonnet, Charles

(1720-1793) Swiss naturalist and philosopher.

VA: Physics-D1

Bouguer, Pierre

(1698-1758) French mathematician and natural scientist; with Charles-Marie de LaCondamine he led the Paris Academy geodetic expedition to South America (1735-45), which he reported in La Figure de la Terre (1749) and.

PG: Earthquakes(8°)-3; Earthquakes(4°)-4

Bourguet, Louis

(1678-1742) Professor of Philosophy and Mathematics in Prussian Neuchâtel.

PG: History(8°)-5

Boyle, Robert

(1627-1691) English chemist – generally considered “the first modern chemist” – and founding member of the Royal Society of London.

PG: Land(8°)-4, -5

VA: Physics-A2

Brahma [Bramma]

Hindu god of creation.

MP: NT 844-A1

PG: Asia(8°)-2, -4

Brodrick, Thomas [Broderick]

(1723-1769) British vice-admiral.

PG: Oceans(8°)-5; Oceans(4°)-5

Browallius, Johann [Browalt]

(1707-1755) Professor of physics at the university in Abo (Sweden), as well as a bishop.

PG: History(8°)-4

Brutus, Marcus Junius

(85-42 BCE) Roman politician, fellow assassin of Julius Caesar.

MO: 42(A)-1

LO: 37-2

Buache, Philippe

(1700-1773) French geographer and cartographer and son-in-law of astronomer and cartographer Guillaume Delisle (see). Published Carte minéralogique oú l’on voit la nature et la situation des terreins qui traversent la France et l’Angleterre (Paris 1751).

PG: Springs(8°)-2; Springs(4°)-3


(563-483 BCE) The “awakened” or “enlightened”; Siddhartha Gautama, born in Nepal.

See also: Fo, Sommona Cadom, Xaca

PG: Asia(8°)-3

Buffon, Georges-Louis LeClerc [Comte de]

(1707-1788) French naturalist and director of the Royal Gardens in Paris.

MP: EP 531-A3

PG: Oceans(8°)-2, -12; Oceans(4°)-11; Land(8°)-5; Land(4°)-11, -15; History(8°)-5, Animals(8°)-4

VA: Physics-D4

Buno, Johannes

(1617-1697) German theologian and educator.

MP: EP 531-A7

Burnet, Thomas

(1635-1715) British theologian. Wrote Telluris Theoria Sacra (1681; English: Sacred Theory of the Earth, 1684).

PG: History(8°)-6

C[ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ]

Caesar, Caius Julius

(100-44 BCE) Roman politician, military commander, and author.

MP: OC-A7; EP 516-1, 2

MO: 42(A)-1, -4; 43(C)-1

PG: History(8°)-1

Calvin, John

(1509-1564) Genevan theologian and reformer, breaking with the Catholic Church c.1530. A central publication was his Institutio Christianae Religionis (1536; French: 1541).

MO: 43(B)-17

Carl V

(1500-1558) Born in Flanders into the Hapsburg family, eventually becoming the most powerful man in Europe as the King of Spain (1516) and then Holy Roman Emperor (1519), his was “the empire on which the sun never sets.”

PG: Land(4°)-4

Carl XII

(1682-1718) King of Sweden (1697).

PG: Land(4°)-21

Carré, Barthélémy

(c.1636- after 1699) French traveller, educated by Jesuits; served in the French navy (from 1662); sent by Colbert to the Middle East and India (Voyages des Indes Orientales, Paris 1699; German abridgment: 1752).

PG: Springs(8°)-6; Springs(4°)-13; Asia(8°)-6

Cartheuser, Friedrich August

(1734-1796) Professor in Frankfurt/Oder, later in Giessen; author of several publications on mineral water. (Identification uncertain.)

PG: Springs(8°)-3

Cassini, Jacques

(1677-1756) French astronomer and member of the Paris Academy of Sciences (1694), the London Royal Society (1696), and the Berlin Academy.

PG: Intro(8°)-2

Cato, the older (Valerius Vettius)

(234-149 BCE) Roman politician and historian. Grandfather to Cato the Younger.

LO: 37-2

Cato, the younger (Marcus Porcius)

(95-46 BCE) Roman politician whose suicide by disembowelment made him a republican martyr in the face of tyranny for many 18th century Europeans, an event popularized in that century through Addison’s play, Cato (1713).

MP: RP/NT 763-A12

MO: 43(C)-1

Catullus, Caius Valerius

(c.84-54 BCE) Roman poet.

MP: EP 531-A14

Celsius, Anders

(1701-1744) Swedish astronomer, member of the London Royal Society (1736), the Paris Academy of Sciences, and a founding member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences (1739). Participated in the French Academy’s geodetic expedition to Lapland led by Maupertuis.

PG: History(8°)-3, -4


Legendary three-headed dog-like creature (lion feet, serpant tail) of Greek mythology guarding the entrance to the underworld.

MP: EP 531-A10

César, Francisco

(15??-1538) Spanish military leader and conqueror, led an expedition of the first Europeans into what is now Argentina (1528) and from which came the legend of a “City of Caesars” filled with gold and silver.

PG: Land(4°)-4*; Humans(8°)-1*


See: Ham

Chardin, Jean

(1643-1713) French jeweller and traveller, best known for his Journal du Voyage du Chevalier Chardin en Perse et aux Indes Orientales (Amsterdam 1686) with an English translation published the same year – an important source of information on Persia and the Near East for Europeans at the time. His travels began in pursuit of trade as the son of a wealthy Parisian merchant and he spent several years in the Near East and India. His Protestantism led him to settle in England.

MO: 43(D)-15

Charlemagne [Karl der Große]

(c.742-814) King of the Franks from 768 until his death, crowned emperor on Christmas Day 800 in Rome by Pope Leo III.

MO: 43(D)-17

Charles II

(1630-1685) King of Great Britain and Ireland; exiled in France until the restoration of the monarchy in 1660.

PG: Animals(8°)-5

Chartres, Philipp II of Orléans, Duke of

(1674-1723) Nephew to Louis XIV of France, served as Regent of France (1715-1723) until Louis XV came of age.

MP: RP/NT 763-A10

Cheselden, William

(1688-1752) English surgeon; known for his improvements with bladder stone extraction and cataract surgery, being the first to restore sight to a congenitally blind patient.

MP: EP 531-A2; RP/NT 763-C1


See: Jesus

Christian III

(1503-1559) Christian III of Denmark (1534) established Lutheranism as the state religion in Denmark and Norway.

PG: Land(4°)-6

Chrysostom, John I

(c.347-407) Archbishop of Constantinople and early Church Father; his oratorical gifts earned him the name Chrysostom (Greek for ‘golden-mouthed’).

MP: EP 531-B6

Cicero, Marcus Tullius

(106-43 BCE) Marcus Tullius Cicero was a Roman statesman, orator, and philosopher.

MO: 43(C)-7

Clarke, Samuel

(1675-1729) English philosopher and Anglican cleric; defended Newton in the Leibniz-Clarke correspondence.

MP: Prol-1, 2

Colb, Peter

(1675-1726) Returned to Europe in 1712 after many years in South Africa; Rector at Neustadt an der Aisch (1718); best known for his Caput Bonae Spei Hodiernum (1719; German: Beschreibung des Vorgebürges der Guten Hoffnung 1745) which offered descriptions of flora, fauna, geography, with most of Part One devoted to an extensive study of the Hottentots (1745, pp. 10-198).

PG: Winds(8°)-2; Winds(4°)-5; Humans(8°)-6, -7

Condamine, Charles Marie de la

See: LaCondamine

Condillac, Etienne Bonnot de Mably de

(1714-1780) French philosopher and follower of Locke’s epistemology; belonged to Diderot's circle in Paris.

MP: Prol-1


(551-479 BCE) Chinese philosopher.

PG: Asia(8°)-2

Constantin V [Copronymus]

(718-775 CE) Byzantine emperor (741). ‘Copronymus’ (the dung-named) is a derogratory reference.

PG: History(8°)-1

Cromwell, Oliver

(1599-1658) English politician, served as “Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland” (1653-58).

MP: EP 682-A6; RP/NT 763-A10

MO: 43(B)-7; 43(C)-1

PG: Winds(4°)-12

Cruquius, Nicolaas Samuelszoon

(1678-1754) Dutch surveyor and cartographer.

PG: History(8°)-3

Crusius, Christian August

(1715-1775) Professor of philosophy (1744) and then of theology (1750) in Leipzig and an important opponent of Wolffian rationalism. His philosophical work occurred early in his career and stopped upon assuming a chair in theology. Despite this abbreviated philosophical career, he published works on ethics, metaphysics, logic – Anweisung (1744), Entwurf (1745), Weg zur Gewißheit (1747) – all three were in Kant’s library.

MP: Prol-2; Ont 7-1; OC-A1, -A5, -A6, -A7, -D1, -D4; EP 516-4; RP/NT 763-D3

MO: 43(C)-2, -3, -10

LO: 37-2, -3; 37a-1

VA: 188-7, -5, -4, -3

Crusoe, Robinson

Fictional character of Daniel Defoe’s novel The Life and Strange Surprizing Adventures of Robinson Crusoe, Of York, Mariner […] (London 1719).

MP: EP 589; EP 531-A10

D[ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ]

D’Alembert, Jean le Rond

(1717-1783) French mathematician and philosopher. Kant’s library included D’Alembert’s Reflexions sur la cause generale des vents (Berlin 1747) and Abhandlung von dem Ursprung, Fortgang und Verbindung der Künste und Wissenschaften (Zürich 1761).

MP: Prol-1

Damiens, Robert-François

(1715-1757) French would-be assassin of Louis XV; his subsequent torture and execution was peculiarly brutal.

MP: EP 516-4

MO: 42(A)-1

Dampier, William

(1651-1715) British sailor, adventurer, and author of A New Voyage round the World (London 1697, 2nd ed.; German: Neue Reise um die Welt, 1702).

PG: Oceans(8°)-1; Land(4°)-13

Darjes, Joachim Georg

(1717-1791) German philosopher and jurist, teaching philosophy and law at Jena and Frankfurt/Oder.

MP: Ont 7-1

D’Argens, Jean-Baptiste de Boyer, Marquis

(1703 (1704?)-1771) French author unwelcome in his own land due to his anti-Catholicism. After living in Constantinople and Amsterdam, he was invited to Fredrick the Great’s court in Potsdam where he then spent much of his career.

MP: EP 531-A11; RP/NT 763-C2

Davel, Johann Daniel Abraham

(1669-1723) Swiss military officer and religious fanatic.

MP: EP 516-4

MO: 43(B)-8, -9

Dawit II

(c.1496-1540) King of Abyssinia, of the Solomonic dynasty; mentioned in Ludolf (1681, ch. 8).

PG: Rivers(4°)-9*

de la Hire, Philippe

See: La Hire, Philippe de

Delisle, Guillaume

(1675-1726) French cartographer, older brother to astronomer Joseph-Nicolas Delisle (below).

PG: Oceans(4°)-13

Delisle, Joseph-Nicolas

(1688-1768) French astronomer; called to Saint Petersburg in 1725 to set up a school of astronomy; his travels through Siberia to observe the transit of Mercury led to his mapping of the North Pacific and he published many ethnographic, biological, and geographical observations. He was the younger brother of the cartographer Guillaume Delisle (1675-1726).

PG: Land(4°)-9


(460-370 BCE) Greek philosopher from Abdera; espoused atomism.

MP: EP 682-A6

LO: 37-1


(385-322 BCE) Athenian orator and politician.

MP: EP 531-B6

Denis, Jean-Baptiste

(1740-1704) French physician, author of a book on a tidal and flammable spring in Poland.

PG: Springs(4°)-4, -12

Derham, William

(1657-1735) British theologian, considered the founder of physico-theology; member of the London Royal Society (1702).

PG: Oceans(8°)-6; Oceans(4°)-7; Springs(8°)-6; Springs(4°)-13; Humans(8°)-6; Land(4°)-5

Desault, Pierre

(1675-1737) French physician.

PG: Animals(8°)-4; Winds(4°)-7

Descartes, René

(1596-1650) French philosopher, scientist, and mathematician. Kant’s library included Descartes’s Meditationes de prima philosophia, in quibus Dei existentia & animae humanae a corpore distinctio demonstrantur, 3rd ed. (Amsterdam 1650) and Principia philosophiae (Amsterdam 1650).

MP: Ont 7-2; Ont 180-3; OC-A1, -C4; EP 531-A6; RP/NT 763-A3, -A5, -A16, -D3

MO: 42(A)-8

PG: Land(8°)-5; Springs(8°)-6, -7; Springs(4°)-12

LO: 37-2

VA: Physics-D6

Diderot, Denis

(1713-1784) French philosopher, art critic, and poet; chief-editor of the Encyclopédie (1751-1772).

MP: Prol-1

Diodorus Siculus

(1st century BCE) Greek historian known for his forty-volume Bibliotheca historica (vols. 1-5 and 11-20 survive and fragments of the others).

PG: Oceans(4°)-12

Diophantus of Alexandria

(c.210-c.290 CE) Greek Mathematician, occasionally called the “father of Algebra.”

VA: Mathematics-A3, -B2

E[ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ]

Eberhard, Johann Peter [“Autor”]

(1727-1779) Professor of mathematics and physics at Halle; Kant used Eberhard’s Erste Gründe der Naturlehre (1753) in the 1750s and 60s as his physics lectures textbook.

VA: Physics-A1, -A3

Effens, Justus van

(1684-1735) Dutch author and editor of the weekly De Hollandsche Spectator (1731-35) – a Dutch imitation of Addison and Steele’s Spectator.

MO: 43(B)-5

Egede, Hans

(1686-1758) Norwegian evangelical missionary in Greenland (1721-1736), known as “the apostle to the eskimos.”

PG: Oceans(8°)-11; Oceans(4°)-17

Elisabeth I

(1533-1603) Queen of England and Ireland (from 1558).

MO: 43(D)-12

Ellis, Henry

(1721-1806) Colonial governor (of Georgia, then Novia Scotia), slave-trader, and member of the London Royal Society (1750); published A Voyage to Hudson’s Bay (1748; German: 1750).

PG: Oceans(8°)-10, -11; Oceans(4°)-17; Land(4°)-7, -8


Fictional character in Rousseau’s (see) pedagogical novel, Émile: or, One Education (1762).

MP: EP 589


(341-270 BCE) Greek philosopher, founder of the Epicurean school in Athens.

MP: OC-D10

MO: 42(A)-1; 43(B)-13

LO: 37-1


[See also: Epikur]

MP: EP 531-A15


(55-c.135) Greek Stoic philosopher.

MP: EP 682-A4

MO: 43(D)-8


(4th/3rd century BCE) Greek mathematician.

MP: EP 531-A13

VA: Mathematics-A3

Euler, Leonhard

(1707-1783) Swiss mathematician and natural scientist; member of the Berlin Academy of Sciences and the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences.

PG: History(8°)-9


(c.480-c.406) Greek tragedian playwright.

MO: 43(B)-17

F[ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ]


Legendary German scholar who sold his soul to the devil in exchange for knowledge and worldly pleasures. Popularized in Christopher Marlowe’s English play The tragical History of Doctor Faustus, first performed in 1594 and published in 1604. (Goethe's Faust did not appear until the early 19th century – too late to be the referent in Herder’s notes).

MP: RP/NT 763-C3; RP/NT 796-1

Felton, John

(1595-1628) English army officer and assassin of George Villiers, the Duke of Buckingham (see).

MP: EP 531-A3

Feuillée, Louis

(1660-1732) French geographer, botanist, member of the Order of Minims (thus: Pater Feuillée), and corresponding member of the Paris Academy of Sciences (1699). Travelled to the Levant (1699), South America (1703-6, 1707-11), and the Canary Islands (1724). Many of his findings are published in his three-volume Journal des Observations physiques, mathematiques et botaniques (1714-25), which is often cited in Lulofs (1755).

PG: Springs(8°)-5; Springs(4°)-5

Fielding, Henry

(1707-1754) English novelist and dramatist, most famous for his Tom Jones (1749).

MO: 43(D)-7

Fo [Foh]

Chinese name for ‘Buddha’ (see); the Sanskrit ‘Buddha’ translates into Chinese using a string of three characters, the first of which is pronounced ‘Fo’.

MP: RP/NT 763-A13

PG: Asia(8°)-2, -3

Fonte, Bartholomew de

Admiral de Fonte and his 1640 voyage to the Pacific Northwest is apparently apocryphal, first introduced to the world in the London publication Monthly Miscellany or Memoirs for the Curious, April and June 1708 (reprinted in Burney 1813, 184-95).

PG: Land(4°)-7

François I [Franz I]

(1494-1547) François I, King of France, son of Charles of Valois, and father to the later king of France, Henry II.

PG: Winds(4°)-7

Friedrich I (of Aragon)

(1452-1504) Friedrich I, last King of Naples (1496-1501), also: Friedrich IV of Aragon.

PG: Oceans(8°)-2

Friedrich II (of Denmark/Norway)

(1534-1588) Friedrich II, the oldest son of Christan III of Denmark and succeeded him as King of Denmark and Norway (1559-1588).

PG: Land(4°)-6

Froelich, David

(1595-1648) Slovakian geographer and mountain climber; traveled to the Carpathians (1615); author of Biblioteca, seu Cynosura peregrinatium, 2 vols (Ulm 1643, 1644).

PG: Land(8°)-2; Land(4°)-16, -17


(2852-2738 BCE) Also: Fu Xi, Fohi. Legendary author of the I-Ching and founder of the Chinese empire.

VA: Mathematics-A6

G[ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ]

Gassendi, Pierre

(1592-1655) French philosopher, priest, and mathematician. He was the author of the “5th Set of Objections” to Descartes’s Meditations.

MP: OC-D10; EP 531-A11


See: Le Gentil de La Barbinais, Etienne Marcel

Gerbert of Aurillac

(946-1003) Benedictine monk eventually becoming the first French Pope (Sylvester II, 999-1003). As a student he travelled to Spain and was exposed to the latest developments in Islamic mathematics and astronomy, and introduced the use of Arabic numerals to Europe.

VA: Mathematics-A6, -B2

Geßner, Conrad

(1516-1565) Swiss naturalist, his Historiae animalium, 5 vols. (Zürich, 1551-1558) is considered the beginning of modern zoology.

VA: Physics-D1

Gleim, Johann Wilhelm Ludwig

(1719-1803) German poet.


Gmelin, Johann Georg

(1709-1755) German natural scientist, professor of chemistry at St. Petersburg (1731), traveled to Siberia on the “Second Kamtschatka” or “Great Northern Expedition” led by the Danish captain Vitus Bering and with the historian Gerhard Friedrich Müller and the astronomer and geographer Louis Delisle de la Croyere (1733-43) on behalf of the Russian Academy of Sciences, returning to southern Germany in 1747 to assume a professorship of botany and chemistry at Tübingen (1749).

PG: Land(8°)-4; Humans(8°)-12

Gregorius (the Illuminator)

(c.257-c.331) Saint Gregory the Illuminator (not to be confused with Pope Gregory) is the patron saint and first head of the Armenian Apostolic Church, having converted Armenia to Christianity in 301, making it the first nation to officially adopt this religion.

MO: 43(B)-9

Grew, Nehemiah

(1641-1712) English botanist, known as the “father of plant anatomy.”

VA: Physics-D1

Gruner, Gottlieb Sigmund

(1717-1778) Swiss jurist and natural scientist.

PG: Land(8°)-3; Land(4°)-16; Earthquakes(8°)-5; Earthquakes(4°)-3; History(8°)-1, -5

Guignes, Joseph de

(1721-1800) French orientalist, interpreter of Eastern languages at the Royal Library (Paris); member of the Royal Society of London (1752).

PG: Asia(8°)-1

H[ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ]


(76-138) Roman emperor.

PG: Rivers(8°)-2; Rivers(4°)-13

Hales, Stephen

(1677-1761) English cleric and natural scientist; considered the founder of modern physiology.

PG: Springs(8°)-5; Winds(4°)-3

VA: Physics-D1

Haller, Albrecht von

(1708-1777) Swiss physician, poet, and natural scientist.

VA: Physics-D1

Halley, Edmond

(1656-1742) English mathemetician and astronomer.

PG: Oceans(8°)-4, -9; Oceans(4°)-4, -14; Land(8°)-6; Springs(8°)-6; Springs(4°)-13

Ham [Cham]

Character from the Hebrew Bible; one of the three sons of Noah.

PG: Humans(8°)-4

Hamilton, Alexander

(before 1688-after 1733) Scottish sea captain, privateer, and merchant; wrote A New Account of the East Indies (1727).

PG: Animals(8°)-6


Hindu deity; lord of the apes.

PG: Asia(8°)-5

Hasselquist, Friedrich

(1722-1752) Swedish naturalist and student of Carl Linnaeus; traveled to Asia Minor to study its natural history, where he died. His notes were published postumously by Linnaeus as Iter Palæstinum, Eller Resa til Heliga Landet, Förrättad Ifrån år 1749 til 1752 (1757; German: 1762).

MP: EP 682-A4

PG: Humans(8°)-7, -12; Animals(8°)-2; Asia(8°)-6

Heemskerck, Jacob van

(1567-1607) Dutch explorer and admiral.

PG: Land(4°)-8


(c.540-480 BCE) Greek philosopher from Ephesus.

MP: EP 682-A6


(484-425 BCE) Greek historian.

PG: Oceans(8°)-10; Oceans(4°)-12; History(8°)-3; Animals(8°)-6

Heyn, Johann

(1709-1746) Assistant school rector in Halle, then rector in Brandenburg/Havel, author of Versuch einer Betrachtung über die Cometen, die Sündflut und das Vorspiel des jüngsten Gerichts (1742).

PG: History(8°)-6; Winds(8°)-5; Winds(4°)-9

Hill, John

(1716-1775) English apothecary and botanist, published microscopy findings in the Royal Society transactions (1746, 1767). His collection of microscopy studies (1752) were translated into German (HMag, vol. 12, 1753).

VA: Physics-A3

Hill, Robert

(1699-1777) English mnemonic artist.

MP: EP 531-A9


Character from the Hebrew Bible; portrayed as a good person afflicted with various and horrific sufferings, caused by Satan and with God’s permission.

MO: 43(D)-2


(c.460-370 BCE) Greek physician.

PG: Winds(4°)-6

VA: Physics-D1

Hire, Philippe de la

See: La Hire, Philippe de

Hobbes, Thomas

(1588-1679) English materialist philosopher; developed a concept of the social contract in his Leviathan.

MO: 42(A)-1

Hoffmann, Adolph Friedrich

(1707-1741) German philosopher and critic of Wolff; studied medicine and philosophy under Andreas Rüdiger at Leipzig and remained there as a professor, where Christian August Crusius attended his lectures.

MP: Prol-2

Hogarth, William

(1697-1764) English painter and engraver known for his series of didactic and satirical images.

MO: 43(D)-25

Homann, Johann Baptist

(1663-1724) German cartographer who founded his own publishing house in Nuremburg (1702).

PG: Oceans(8°)-9


(8th/7th century BCE) Greek poet, credited with the Illiad and Odyssey.

MP: EP 531-A13

Horaz, Quintus Horatius Flaccus

(65-8 BCE) Roman poet.

PG: History(8°)-1

Hudson, Henry

(c.1565-1611) English navigator and explorer (although he sometimes sailed on behalf of Dutch merchants), particularly of the north-eastern portion of the North American continent in search of a Northwest Passage to China.

PG: Land(4°)-7

Hume, David

(1711-1776) Scottish philosopher and historian. Kant’s library included J. G. Sulzer's edition of Hume's Vermischte Schriften, 4 vols. (Hamburg/Leipzig, 1754, 1755, 1756, 1756) and K. G. Schreiter’s translation of Hume’s Dialogues on Natural Religion (1779): Gespräche über natürliche Religion. Nach der zwoten Englischen Ausgabe. Nebst einem Gespräch über den Atheismus von Ernst Platner (Leipzig 1781).

MP: Prol-1; EP 682-B1

MO: 43(B)-7; 43(C)-1; 43(D)-20

PG: Humans(8°)-8

Hutcheson, Francis

(1694-1746) Irish-Scottish philosopher and professsor. Kant’s library included J. G. Gellius's translation of Hutcheson's Essay on the Nature and Conduct of the Passions (1728): Abhandlung über die Natur und Beherrschung der Leidenschaften und Neigungen und über das moralische Gefühl insonderheit (Leipzig 1760) and his Untersuchung unsrer Begriffe von Schönheit und Tugend in zwo Abhandlungen (Frankfurt/Leipzig, 1762).

MP: EP 682-B1

MO: 42(A)-2, 43(B)-1, -3

I[ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ]


(c.245-325) Neoplatonist philosopher and student of Porphyry (see); wrote On the Pythagorean Life.

MP: RP/NT 763-C7

Inkle, Thomas

A fictional character developed by Richard Steele (The Spectator, No. 11, Tuesday, March 13, 1711) based on a brief account given in Richard Ligon’s A True and Exact History of the Island of Barbados (1657).

MO: 43(C)-9


Another name for Shiva (see).

MP: NT 844-A1

J[ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ]


Members of the Society of Jesus, founded by Ignatius of Loyola in 1534 and approved by the Pope in 1540.

MP: EP 682-A7

PG: Oceans(8°)-9

Jesus of Nazareth

(c.4 BCE - 29 CE) Character from the Christian Bible; an inspirational figure around whose memory Christianity formed.

MP: RP/NT 796-1

MO: 43(B)-17


Character from the Hebrew Bible; an assistant to Moses and his sucessor as leader of the Israelites.

MO: 43(B)-8


(331/332-363) Flavius Clausius Iulianus Augustus, known as “Julian the Apostate”; Roman Emperor from 361 until his death two years later.

MO: 43(B)-17


Eponymous character in Rousseau’s (see) best-selling novel Julie, ou la nouvelle Héloïse (1761; German translation the same year).

MO: 43(B)-5


Roman god (counterpart to the Greek god Zeus).

MP: RP/NT 763-C6, -E4

MO: 43(B)-13

K[ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ]

Kaiser of China

(259-210 BCE) Presumed referent is Shi Huang Di, the first Emperor of China.

PG: Asia(8°)-2*


(1654-1722) Fourth Chinese emperor of the Qing dynasty – the longest reigning (1661-1722) emperor in Chinese history. [or else: Kammu (Japanese emperor, 781-806)]

PG: Humans(8°)-12

Karl der Große

See: Charlemagne

Kästner, Abraham Gotthelf

(1719-1800) German mathematician and astronomer; director of the Göttingen observatory. Portions of Herder’s notes on mathematics appear to stem from Kästner’s Anfangsgründe der Arithmetik (1758), and he also translated into German several works in the natural sciences used by Kant in his physical geography lectures: Lulofs’s Einleitung (from the Dutch), Montesquieu’s Werk von den Gesetze (from the French), and Buffon’s Allgemeine Historie der Natur (from the French).

LO: 37-3


See: Cato, the Younger

Kepler, Johannes

(1571-1630) German astronomer.

MP: EP 531-B8

LO: 37-4

Keymis, Lawrence

(15??-1618) English explorer to Guiana with Sir Walter Raleigh (1595, 1617-18).

PG: Humans(8°)-6

Keyßler, Johann Georg

(1693-1743) German travel writer.

PG: Winds(8°)-3; Winds(4°)-6

Kircher, Athanasius

(1602-1680) Jesuit mathematician, physician, and polymath.

PG: Oceans(8°)-9; Oceans(4°)-13


See: Colb, Peter


See: Constantin V

Korte, Jonas

(1682-1747) Bookdealer and traveller to the Orient.

PG: Rivers(4°)-10

Kuehn, Heinrich

(1690-1769) German mathematician, taught at the gymnasium in Danzig.

PG: Rivers(4°)-4

L[ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ]

Labat, Jean Baptiste

(1663-1738) French Dominican priest, served as a missionary in the Antilles (West Indies). Succesful author of travelogues.

MO: 43(C)-9

PG: Springs(8°)-7; Springs(4°)-14; Asia(8°)-1


See: Spartans

LaCondamine, Charles Marie de

(1701-1774) French explorer, geographer, and mathematician; with Pierre Bouguer he led the Paris Academy geodetic expedition to South America (1735-45), which he reported in Journal du voyage (1751).

MP: EP 531-A11

PG: Land(8°)-2; Land(4°)-4; Winds(8°)-8; Winds(4°)-11; Humans(8°)-9; Animals(8°)-1

La Hire, Philippe de

(1640-1714) French astronomer and member of the Paris Academy of Sciences.

PG: Springs(8°)-6; Springs(4°)-12, -14

Lambert, Edward

(1716-1806) Englishman known for an unusual genetic skin disorder (Ichthyosis hystrix) and who was commonly known as the “porcupine man.”

PG: Humans(8°)-3*

La Mettrie, Julien Offray de

(1709-1751) French physician and materialist philosopher, best known for his L’homme machine (Leiden 1747).

MO: 43(B)-14

La Motte, Antoine Houdart de

(1672-1731) French author, member of the Berlin Academy (1710).

MP: EP 682-A5

Langhans, Daniel

(1728-1813) Swiss physician; student of Albrecht von Haller; author of Beschreibung der Natur und Kraft des Schweizer Gletscher-Spiritus (1758).

PG: Land(4°)-22

Ledermüller, Martin Frobenius

(1719-1769) German microscopist; his main works – several of which were large collections of annotated engravings – were published in the early 1760s.

VA: Physics-D4

Le Gentil de la Barbinais, Etienne Marcel [Guy?]

(1685-1731) French merchant of Saint Malo, explored South America (for trading purposes), sailed around the globe (1714), and wrote of these travels: Nouveau voyage au tour du monde, 3 vols. (Paris 1725-27).

PG: Earthquakes(8°)-2; Earthquakes(4°)-1

Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm Baron von

(1646-1716) German philosopher, mathematician, polymath.

MP: Prol-2; OC-B1, -C5, -C8, -D5, -D7, -D9; EP 531-A14; EP 589; EP 682-A8; RP/NT 763-A2, -A3, -A4, -A11, -C1

LO: 37-2; 37a-1

VA: Mathematics-A6

Leiden, Johann von

(c.1509-1536) Anabaptist tailor from Leiden, led the commune in Münster.

MP: EP 516-4; EP 531-A3

MO: 43(B)-7


(5th century BCE) Greek philosopher, founder of the School at Abdera; espoused atomism.

LO: 37-1

Linné, Carl von [Linneaus]

(1707-1778) Swedish natural scientist; in his Systema Naturae (1735) he presented the botanical and zoological classificatory system used to this day. He helped found the Royal Swedish Academy of Science (1739), modeled after the academies in London and Paris.

PG: History(8°)-3, -7; Asia(8°)-6


(13 BCE-31 CE) Claudia Livia Julia, the daughter of Nero Claudius Drusus and Antonia Minor, sister to Emperor Claudius. (Identification uncertain.)

MO: 42(A)-4

Locke, John

(1632-1704) English philosopher.

MP: OC-D4, -D6; EP 531-A2, -A12

MO: 43(B)-17

LO: 37-3

Lohmannin, Anna Elisabeth

(18th century) German farm girl, notorious for a spiritual possession.

MP: RP/NT 796-1

Ludolf, Hiob

(1624-1704) German polymath and philologist; considered as the founder of the study of the Ethiopian language and literature.

PG: Humans(8°)-6, -7, -12; Animals(8°)-6

Lukrez, Lucretius Carus

(c.99-c.55 BCE) Roman poet and philosopher, best known for his Epicurean De rerum natura.

MO: 42(A)-1

Lulofs, Johan

(1711-1768) Dutch astronomer in Leiden, author of the first part of Kant’s physical geography lectures, based on his textbook Einleitung zu der mathematischen und physikalischen Kenntniß der Erdkugel, translated from the Dutch by Abraham Gotthelf Kästner (Göttingen-Leipzig 1755). Corresponding member of the Berlin Academy of Sciences (1736).

PG: Oceans(8°)-10, -12; Oceans(4°)-11; History(8°)-5, -6;


Followers of the Protestant reformer, Martin Luther (1483-1546), and the official religion of the Albertus-Universität in Königsberg.

MP: RP/NT 763-E4


(fl. c.820 BCE) Legendary lawgiver of Sparta.

MO: 43(C)-2

M[ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ]

Maffei, Francesco Scipione, Marchese di

(1675-1755) Italian scholar and poet.

PG: Land(4°)-17

Magliabechi, Antonio

(1633-1714) Book collector and eventual librarian to Cosimo Medici, and to whose library his own collection of 30,000 volumes was added upon his death; known for his mnemonic powers, he is said to have read and committed to memory the many volumes of his library.

MP: EP 531-A9

Magnus, Albertus

(c.1200-1280) German Dominican friar, philosopher, and scientist; taught at Cologne and at Paris, where Thomas Aquinas was his student.

MP: RP/NT 763-C3

VA: Physics-D1


See: Mohammed

Maimonides, Moses

(c.1135-1204) Jewish philosopher and scientist.

VA: Physics-D1

Mairan, Jean Jacques d’Ortous de

(1678-1771) French physicist and mathematician; perpetual secretary of the Royal Academy of Sciences in Paris (from 1740). Kant owned a German translation of his treatise on ice (Abhandlung von dem Eisse, 1752).

PG: Land(8°)-5, -6; History(8°)-1

Malebranche, Nicolas

(1638-1715) French philosopher.

MP: RP/NT 763-A2, -A4, -A16

LO: 37-3

Malpighi, Marcello

(1628-1694) Italian anatomist and botanist.

VA: Physics-D1

Manfredi, Eustachio

(1674-1739) Italian, first astronomer of the Bologna Academy of Sciences (1711).

PG: History(8°)-4, -9

Mani [Manes]

(216-276/277) Persian founder of Manichaeism.

MP: RP/NT 763-E4; NT 844-A1


[See also: Mani]

MP: RP/NT 763-E4

Margarethe I

(1353-1412) Queen consort of Norway (1363-1380) and Sweden (1363-1380), later of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden.

PG: Land(4°)-5

Mariotte, Edme

(1620?-1684) French physicist, Jesuit priest, and early member of the Paris Academy of Sciences; the Boyle-Mariotte Law (on the relationship between pressure and volume) is named after him.

PG: Oceans(8°)-6; Oceans(4°)-7; Earthquakes(8°)-4; Earthquakes(4°)-5; Springs(8°)-6, -7; Springs(4°)-13, -14; Winds(8°)-10

Marsilli, Count Luigi Fernando

(1658-1730) Also: Marsigli. Italian geographer and natural historian from Bologna. Member of the French Academy of Sciences (1715) and the London Royal Society (1722). Published a foundational text on oceanography: Histoire physique de la mer (1725).

PG: Oceans(8°)-1, -3, -5; Oceans(4°)-1, -2, -4; Land(8°)-4; Springs(8°)-3, -7; Springs(4°)-12

Martell, Carl

(686-741) Frankish military leader; son of Pepin and grandfather to Charlemagne.

PG: Animals(8°)-5

Maupertuis, Pierre Louis Moreau de

(1698-1759) French philosopher; president of the Berlin Academy of Sciences (1746-57). Kant’s library included Maupertuis’s Versuch in der Moralischen Weltweisheit (Halle 1750) and Versuch, von der Bildung der Körper (Leipzig 1761).

MP: OC-D5, -D12

PG: Intro(8°)-2; Land(8°)-2, -4; Land(4°)-6, -23; Earthquakes(8°)-5; Humans(8°)-3, -6

Megerle, Johann Ulrich

See: Abraham a Sancta Clara

Meier, Georg Friedrich [“Autor”]

(1718-1777) Philosophy professor at Halle, where he had earlier studied under both S.J. and A.G. Baumgarten. He assumed the latter’s courses when Baumgarten left to teach at Frankfurt/Oder. Kant used Meier’s Auszug aus der Vernunftlehre as the textbook for his logic lectures.

LO: 37-4


Roman god of commerce and communication.

MP: EP 589; RP/NT 763-C6


See: La Mettrie

Middleton, Christopher

(†1770) British naval officer and arctic explorer; led an expedition to locate a Northwest Passage leading westward out of Hudson’s Bay (1741-42); elected to the Royal Soceity of London (1737).

PG: Land(4°)-7

Milton, John

(1608-1674) English poet and civil servant; wrote Paradise Lost (1667).

MP: EP 531-A14; EP 589


A devout muslim from Baghdad and author of The Visions of Mirza; presumably an invention of Addison’s (see), who published his “translation” of the first vision in The Spectator (#159, Saturday, September 1, 1711).

MP: EP 589

Mohammed [Mahomet]

(c.570-632) Central figure and founder of Islam, known to Muslims as the Holy Prophet.

MP: OC-B2; EP 516-4; EP 589

MO: 43(B)-9, -17

PG: Winds(4°)-6

LO: 37-2


Ancient Ammonite god characterized in the Hebrew Bible as requiring human sacrifice (Lev. 18:21; Deut. 12:31, 18:10-13; et al.).

MP: RP/NT 763-A15

Montagu, Mary Wortley, née Pierrepoint

(1689-1762) Intellectually gifted English aristocrat and poet, best known for her posthumously published letters. She traveled with her husband (Edward Montagu, British ambassador to Turkey) through Europe to Constantinople (1716-18), where she observed smallpox inoculation and publicized this in Britain upon her return.

PG: Asia(8°)-7

Montesquieu, Charles de Sécondat, Baron de la Brède et de

(1689-1755) French author and philosopher, his best known works are the anonymously published De l’esprit des loix (1748) and the Lettres persanes (1721).

PG: Humans(8°)-10

Moro, Antonio Lazzaro

(1687-1764) Italian geologist and abbot, one of the founders of vulcanism (the idea that volcanoes were instrumental in shaping the surface of the earth): De crostacei e degli altri marini corpi che si truovano su’ monti (1740).

PG: History(8°)-2


Character from the Hebrew Bible; traditionally understood to have led the people of Israel out of Egypt and to have written the Pentateuch (the first five books of the Torah).

PG: History(8°)-6; Asia(8°)-4, -6

Müller, Gerhard Friedrich

(1705-1783) German-Russian historian and geographer; lived in St. Petersburg from 1725, and in 1730 became a full professor at the Academy of Sciences there; took part with Johann Georg Gmelin in the second Russian Kamtschatka expedition (1733-45); published Sammlung russischer Geschichte (1732 ff.). Referred to as ‘P.[rofessor] Müller’ in the notes.

PG: History(8°)-1, -3; Land(4°)-8

Munk, Jens

(1579-1628) Danish-Norwegian navigator and explorer, participating in or leading expeditions in search of a Northeast passage (1609-10) and a Northwest passage (1619-20). He published his account of the latter expedition as: Navigatio Septentrionalis (1624).

PG: Land(4°)-7

Muret, Marc Antoine

(1526-1585) A classical philologist and legal theorist.

MP: EP 531-A9

N[ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ]

Nadîr Shâh

(1688-1747) Military leader from the province of Khorasan (parts of modern day Iran and Afghanistan). In 1730 he drove the Afghans out of Isfahan and in 1736 became Shah of Persia, ending with his assassination, which Kant recounts in his 1764 Beautiful and Sublime (AA 2: 212).

PG: Asia(8°)-3, -4

Needham, John Terberville

(1713-1781) English natural scientist.

VA: Physics-D1


(37-68 CE) Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus, the last Roman emperor of the Julio-Claudian dynasty (54-68).

MO: 43(C)-8

Newton, Isaac

(1643-1727) English mathematician, physicist, alchemist; Kant’s library included Newton’s philosophiae naturalis principia mathematica (Amsterdam 1714) and Optice sive de reflexionibus, refractionibus, inflexionibus & coloribus lucis (London 1719).

MP: Ont 180-3; OC-C4, -C10, -D9, -D12; EP 531-B8; RP/NT 763-A7, -A8, -A9

PG: Oceans(8°)-3; Oceans(4°)-8; Land(8°)-6; Land(4°)-6; History(8°)-6, -7, -9

LO: 37-2, -4

Nikomachos von Gerasa

(c. 100 CE) A Neo-Pythagorean.

VA: Mathematics-A3


Character from the Hebrew Bible; built an ark, a ship to allow humans and animals to survive the flood.

PG: History(8°)-6

Nollet, Jean Antoine

(1700-1770) French theologian and naturalist; professor for experimental physics at various French universities. He served occasionally as a royal tutor under Louis XV.

PG: Oceans(8°)-2; Oceans(4°)-2

O[ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ]

Occelus Lucanus

(6th century BCE) Greek philosopher, possibly a student of Pythagoras; best known for a neo-Platonic 1st century BCE book (On the Nature of the Universe) falsely attributed to him.

MP: RP/NT 763-C2


Germanic divinity, creator of the world and of human beings.

PG: Humans(8°)-12

Og of Bashan [Basan]

Character from the Hebrew Bible, described as an Amorite king (Deuteronomy 3:1-13).



Mythological first king of Thebes on Boetia or Attica.

PG: History(8°)-6


Also: Ahura Mazda, Ormazd. Creative spirit or god of Zoroastrianism.

MP: NT 844-A1

Osman, Topal

(c.1663-1733) Successful Ottoman military officer and administrator, for a brief time serving as the Grand Vizier (1731-32) in Istanbul.

MO: 43(B)-7


An Incan political leader at the time of the Spanish invasion; the name is possibly a miswrite.

PG: Land(4°)-4

Overkerker, General

(Early 18th century?) Overkerker is mentioned in an account of the wars leading up to the 1725 Peace of Vienna; nothing else is known.

MO: 43(B)-7

Ovidius, Naso Publius [Ovid]

(43 BCE-17/18 CE) Roman poet; wrote Metamorphoses (c.5 CE).

MP: EP 531-A10

PG: History(8°)-1, -3

P[ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ]


Greek mythological figure (in Hesiod); created by Hephaestus and Athena as the first woman, and to whom each of the gods gave her a gift (thus her name). Pandora is most commonly associated with a jar (often referred to as a box) that, upon opening she releases all the evils of humanity, but closes the jar before hope could also escape.

MP: RP/NT 763-E4

Pascal, Blaise

(1623-1662) French mathematician, physicist, inventor, and Christian apologist.

MO: 43(D)-9


Ancient Spartan mentioned in Plutarch’s Lives, in the essay on Lycurgus, the Spartan 9th century BCE lawgiver.

MO: 43(B)-3


Winged stallion of Greek mythology.

MP: OC-B4; EP 589

Perrault, Pierre

(1608-1680) French hydrologist.

PG: Springs(8°)-6; Springs(4°)-12

Persius Flaccus, Aulus

(34-62 CE) Roman satirist.

MP: RP/NT 763-A9

Pesce, Nicolas

(14??-end of 15th century) Legendary Italian diver during the time of Friedrich I; served as the model for Friedrich Schiller’s ballad “Der Taucher” (1797).

PG: Oceans(8°)-2; Oceans(4°)-2

Peter I

(1672-1725) Czar of Russia; known as “Peter the Great.”

PG: Oceans(8°)-10, Oceans(4°)-14; Rivers(4°)-12

Peyssonel, Jean André

(1694-1759) French physican and explorer, born in Marseilles and died on the French Caribbean island of Guadeloupe.

PG: Earthquakes(8°)-5; Earthquakes(4°)-3

Philipp II of Macedon

(382-336 BCE) King of Macedon (from 359 BCE), father of Alexander the Great, who succeeded him, and Philip III, who succeeded Alexander.

PG: Land(4°)-17

Philippos of Acarnania

(4th century BCE) Alexander the Great’s trusted physician (Plutarch, Lives).

MO: 43(B)-7


(c.402-c.318 BCE) “The Good”; an Athenian statesman and subject of one of Plutarch’s Lives.

MO: 43(C)-1

Pilatus, Pontius

(1st century CE). Prefect under the Roman Emperor Tiberius in the province of Judea and Samaria; famous as interrogator of Jesus of Nazareth, as recounted in the Christian Bible.

PG: Land(4°)-22

Platon [Plato]

(428-348 BCE) Athenian philosopher; founded the Academy in Athens.

MP: Prol-1; OC-D4; EP 531-A2; RP/NT 763-A12, -A13

LO: 37-2

Plinius, Gaius Plinius (the Older)

(23-79 CE) Roman historian and naturalist; wrote Naturalis historia, to which Kant refers in his lectures on physical geography.

PG: Earthquakes(8°)-4; Earthquakes(4°)-7; Humans(8°)-6, -7

VA: Physics-D1


Greek god of the underworld.

MP: RP/NT 763-C7

Pontoppidan, Eric

(1698-1764) Norwegian professor of theology, taught at the university in Copenhagen.

PG: History(8°)-3, -4

Pope, Alexander

(1688-1744) English poet; wrote Essay on Man (London 1734).



(c.234-c.305) Neoplatonic philosopher born in Tyre; studied under Plotinus and edited his Enneads.

MP: RP/NT 763-C7

Psellus, Michael

(1018-1079) Greek mathematician.

VA: Mathematics-A3


(c.360-270 BCE) Greek skeptical philosopher

MP: Prol-1

LO: 37-1, -2


(c.570-490 BCE) Greek philosopher and mathematician.

MP: Prol-1; OC-C5; EP 593-3; RP/NT 763-E2

PG: Asia(8°)-5

LO: 37-1

VA: Mathematics-A2, -A3, -B1, -B2

Q[ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ]

Quixote, Don

Fictional character in Miguel Cervantes’ novel, translated into German as Des berühmten Ritters Don Quixotte von Mancha lustige und sinnreiche Geschichte, 2nd ed. (Leipzig, 1753).

MP: EP 531-A10*; EP 589

R[ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ]

Raleigh, Walter

(1552-1618) English military and naval commander, explorer, author, poet, spy, and eventually beheaded – a leading figure in Elisabethan England. His undoing was a result of being the commander of a British expedition to South America, where Lawrence Keymis (see) – under Raleigh’s command but against his orders – attacked a Spanish outpost on the Orinoco river.

PG: Humans(8°)-6; Land(4°)-4

Ramus, Peter

(1515-1572) French Protestant logician and educational reformer.

MP: Prol-1

Ray, John

(1627-1705) British naturalist and botanist.

PG: Earthquakes(8°)-6; History(8°)-2

Reaumur, René-Antoine, Ferchault de

(1683-1757) French naturalist and member of the Paris Academy of Science, with a wide-range of research interests, although now remembered primarily for his thermometer (1730) that sets the temperatures of the freezing and boiling of water at 0° and 80°.

PG: Land(8°)-6; Animals(8°)-2

Reimarus, Hermann Samuel

(1694-1768) German Deist philosopher, professor of oriental languages at the Academic Gymnasium in Hamburg.

MP: RP/NT 763-A16

Richardson, Jonathan

(1667-1745) English painter, art collector and critic.

MP: EP 531-A10[?]

Richardson, Samuel

(1689-1761) English author and printer; best known for his novels Pamela (1740), Clarissa (1748), and The History of Sir Charles Grandison (1753).

MP: EP 531-A10[?]

Robinet, Jean Baptiste

(1735-1820) French naturalist (De la nature, 4 vols., 1761-66) and lapsed Jesuit; helped edit Diderot’s Encyclopédie.

MO: 43(B)-7

Rochia, Joseph

(c.1705-????) Savoyard Alpine farmer from Bergemoletto.

PG: Land(4°)-19*

Rousseau, Jean-Jacques

(1712-1778) French philosopher, novelist, and composer.

See also: Émile, Julie

MP: EP 589; RP/NT 763-A7

MO: 42(A)-4; 43(C)-1, -2, -5, -6, -7; 43(D)-4, -20

Rudiger, Andreas

(1673-1731) German philosopher and theologian, studied under Christian Thomasius at Halle.

MP: Prol-2


Another name for Shiva (see).

MP: NT 844-A1

PG: Asia(8°)-4

S[ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ]

Sarasa, Alphonse Antonio de

(1618-1667) Jesuit Flemish mathematician.

MP: EP 682-A6


Character from the Hebrew Bible (2 Kings 18:13, 19:35, etc.), but also an actual king of Assyria (705-681 BCE).

PG: Winds(8°)-5; Winds(4°)-9

Sauvages, François Boissier de

French scientist, known for his early work on the description of disease symptoms.

MP: EP 531-A12; RP/NT 763-A5

Savoy Laufer

Not identified.

PG: Land(4°)-18

Schach Nadir

See: Nadîr Shâh

Scheuchzer, Johann Jakob

(1672-1733) Swiss physician and naturalist in Zürich; published a three-volume Beschreibung der Naturgeschichte des Schweitzerlandes (1706-1708). His Physica oder Natur-Wissenschaft (1701) was the first physics textbook written in German.

PG: Winds(8°)-2; Winds(4°)-2; History(8°)-5; Land(4°)-16

Schwarz, Berthold

(14th century) German alchemist monk credited with discovering gunpowder.

VA: Physics-D1


(16??-17??) Astronomer (since 1681) and member (since 1693) of the Paris Academy of Sciences and a collaborator with La Hire (see) and Cassini (see).

PG: Springs(8°)-6, -7; Springs(4°)-14

Semler, Johann Salomo

(1725-1791) German protestant professor of theology at Halle, founder of the historical-critical method in Biblical studies.

MP: RP/NT 763-C2; RP/NT 796-1

Seneca, Lucius Annaeus Seneca

(4 BCE-65 CE) Roman philosopher and statesman.

MP: EP 531-A8

MO: 43(D)-8, -19

Servet, Michael

(c.1511-1553) Spanish theologian, cartograph, humanist.

MO: 43(B)-17

Shaftesbury, Anthony Ashley-Cooper, 3rd Earl of

(1671-1713) English politician and philosopher.

MP: EP 682-B1

Shiva [Isuren, Rudiren]

“The Auspicious One”; a primary Hindu deity and the supreme deity in Shaivism. Creation, maintenance, and destruction of the universe are associated in Hinduism, respectively, with Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva. ‘Rudra’ is one of the many names of Shiva.

MP: NT 844-A1

PG: Asia(8°)-4


(469 BCE-399 BCE) Athenian philosopher.

MP: OC-D6; EP 531-A12; EP 682-B4; RP/NT 763-A10, -A12, -E3

MO: 43(B)-10; 43(C)-8

LO: 37-1, -2


(c. 630-c.560 BCE) Athenian statesman and legislator; one of the “Seven Sages of Greece”.

LO: 37-1

Sommona Cadom

Variant- or misspelling of ‘Samana Gotama’ or the Buddha (see).

MP: RP/NT 763-D1

PG: Asia(8°)-2, -3

Spartans [Lacedaemonian]

MO: 42(A)-3, 42(A)-4; 43(C)-5

PG: Humans(8°)-9

Spiera, Francesco

(1502-1548) Italian jurist famous for his religious conversions and eventual suicide.

MO: 43(B)-17

Spinoza, Baruch

(1632-1677) Dutch pantheist philosopher.

MP: OC-D4, -D5

MO: 42(A)-8; 43(D)-19


See: Lambert, Edward

Stifel, Michael [Stiphelius]

(1486-1567) Friend of Luther and Melanchthon; pastor in Holtsdorff, near Wittenberg; first professor of mathematics at Jena (1559).

MP: EP 531-A16


MP: EP 531-A15; EP 589; EP 682-A3, -A5, -B1, -B4

MO: 42(A)-1; 43(B)-3; 43(C)-1, -7; 43(D)-8


(64-63 BCE-c.24 CE) Greek geographer, philosopher, and historian; wrote a 17 volume Geographica, a descriptive history of the lands and people known to Greek culture, based on his own travels but primarily on the available literature.

PG: Land(4°)-3, -12

Sulzer, Johann Georg

(1720-1779) Aesthetician and close friend to Moses Mendelssohn; member of the Berlin Academy of Sciences. Kant thought well of him and sent him copies of his publications.

MP: EP 531-A15

LO: 37-4

Swammerdam, Jan

(1637-1680) Dutch biologist and microscopist, the first to illustrate the life phases of an insect, as well as red blood cells

VA: Physics-A2

Swedenborg, Emanuel

(1688-1772) Swedish natural scientist turned mystic; Kant bought and read his 8-volume Arcana Coelestia (1749-1756).

MP: RP/NT 763-A13, -A14, -C5

Swift, Jonathan

(1667-1745) Anglo-Irish satirist author.

MP: EP 531-A8

Sylvester II, Pope

See: Gerbert of Aurillac

T[ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ]

Tacitus, Publius Cornelis

(55-120?) Roman historian.

PG: Humans(8°)-1


(1336-1405) Also: Timur-i Läng. Central Asian conqueror and ruler, born in what is now Uzbekistan, he founded the short-lived “Timurid Empire.”

PG: Land(4°)-13; Humans(8°)-2

Taquet, Andreas

Jesuit mathematician; Wolff mentions his Elementa Geometriae plana et solida (Wolff 1734, cols. 538-39).

VA: Mathematics-A3

Thales of Miletus

(c. 624/623-c.548/545 BCE) Traditionally understood as the western world’s first philosopher and scientist, one of the “Seven Sages of Greece.”

LO: 37-1

Theoderic, der Große

(451-526) King of the Ostrogoths (from 475).

PG: History(8°)-3


(c.371-c.287 BCE) Student of Plato and Aristotle, succeeding the latter as head of the Lyceum (c.322 BCE).

MO: 43(B)-15

Thévenot, Jean de

(1633-1667) French traveler to the Orient (1655-67); died in Armenia.

PG: Springs(8°)-7; Springs(4°)-14; Winds(8°)-7; Winds(4°)-10; Humans(8°)-6; Asia(8°)-5

Thomas (the Apostle)

Character from the Christian Bible; one of the twelve apostles. ‘Thomas’ is Aramaic for ‘twin’, thus his Greek name ‘Didymus’. He is said to have evangelized in India, establishing a community of Christians.

MP: EP 516-4

PG: Humans(8°)-5; Asia(8°)-4

Thomas of Cana

Historical or legendary figure responsible for leading Jewish Christians to Kerala, India (some time between 4th and 9th centuries), where they joined an already establised Christian community. Traditionally understood to have been a Syrian merchant, and in the Physical Geography notes referred to as “Markt-Thomas”.

PG: Humans(8°)-5; Asia(8°)-4

Thomasius, Christian

(1655-1728) German protestant philosopher and jurist at Halle.

MP: RP/NT 763-C3

Tien Ku

‘Tien Ku’ is Chinese for Lord of Heaven.

MP: RP/NT 763-C7


See: Tamerlan


(39-81 CE) Roman Emperor (from 79 CE).

PG: Earthquakes(8°)-3; Earthquakes(4°)-3

Tournefort, Joseph Pitton de

(1656-1708) French botanist, physician, and traveler to the Orient.

PG: Land(8°)-2; Land(4°)-22, -24

Traian, Marcus Ulpius [Trajan]

(53-117 CE) Roman emperor (from 98 CE).

PG: Earthquakes(8°)-3; Earthquakes(4°)-4

Tschirikow, Aleksei Iljitsch

(1703-1748) A Russian navigator, participated in two Kamchatka expeditions (1725-30 and 1733-43).

PG: Land(4°)-9

Tschirnhausen, Ehrenfried Walther von

(1651-1708) German mathematician and philosopher.

LO: 37-3

U[ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ]

Ulloa, Antonio de

(1716-1795) Spanish naturalist and explorer; took part in the 1735 expedition to Quito with Jorge Juan. Kant mentions Ulloa in his discussion of race in the Teleological Principles (AA 8: 175).

PG: Winds(8°)-10

Umar ibn al-Chattab

(592-644) Important character from Islam; the father of Hafsa, father-in-law of Mohammed. Succeeded Abu Bakr (632-34) as the second caliph (634-44) of the Rashidun Caliphate.

PG: Asia(8°)-2

V[ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ]

Valvasor, Johann Weikhard

(1641-1693) German topographer and historian from the Herzogtum Krain, and a member of the Royal Society of London; published a four-volume Die Ehre des Herzogthums Crain (1689).

PG: Land(8°)-2; Land(4°)-22

Varen, Bernhard [Varenius]

(1622-1650) German geographer; trained in medicine at Königsberg and Leiden; settled in Amsterdam as a physician, but in his short life published a foundational work of modern geography, Geographia generalis (1650), that enjoyed many editions and was translated into several languages. Isaac Newton issued an improved Latin edition in 1672, and it was this edition that Kant owned.

PG: Oceans(8°)-10; Oceans(4°)-13; Land(8°)-2, -5; Land(4°)-16; Springs(8°)-6; Springs(4°)-13; Rivers(4°)-3, -4

Vasco de Gama

(1469?-1524) Portuguese sailor; discovered the sea passage to India, rounding the southern tip of Africa in 1497.

PG: Oceans(8°)-10; Winds(8°)-7; Winds(4°)-10


The Roman goddess of love.

MP: RP/NT 763-C6

Vernet, Jacques

(1698-1789) Professor of history, belles-lettres, and theology from Geneva; published Lettres d’un citoyen (1764) against Rousseau’s Lettres écrites de la montagne (1763).

MO: 43(C)-2

Vergil, Publius Maro [Virgil]

(70 BCE-19 BCE) Roman poet, best known for the Aeneid.


MO: 43(C)-1

PG: Earthquakes(8°)-3; Earthquakes(4°)-3

Villiers, George, 1st Duke of Buckingham

(1592-1628) English aristocrat and favorite to James I; stabbed to death by the army officer John Felton (see).

MP: RP/NT 796-1

Voltaire, François Marie Arouet de

(1694-1778) François-Marie Arouet, known universally as Voltaire; French Enlightenment author and cultural figure known for his wit-filled defense of free speech and freedom of religion.

MO: 43(C)-2


Roman god of fire.

MP: RP/NT 763-C6, -C7

W[ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ]

Wafer, Lionel

(1640-1705) Welsh sailor and pirate, served as William Dampier’s ship surgeon during the voyage to the South Seas in 1680. Published A New Voyage and Description of the Isthmus of America (1685; German: 1759).

PG: Oceans(8°)-11

Warren, Sir Peter

(1703-1752) Irish naval officer, serving as an admiral of the British Navy during the conflict with the American colonies; later a member of parliament.

PG: Oceans(8°)-10; Oceans(4°)-16

Weigel, Erhard

(1625-1699) A German mathematician.

VA: Mathematics-A6

Wesenfeld, Arnold

(1664-1727) Aristotelian philosopher and lecturer at the university at Frankfurt/Oder in logic, metaphysics and ethics, later serving as mayor in that city. His Aristotelian work Georgica animii et vitae concerns the harnessing of human emotions.

MP: EP 682-A3*

Whiston, William

(1667-1752) British mathematician and physicist; expelled from his mathematics position at Cambridge due to his unorthodox religious views (1710).

PG: Land(8°)-5; History(8°)-6


Supreme deity of the Vishnavism branch of Hinduism.

MP: NT 844-A1

PG: Asia(8°)-4, -5

Witsen, Nicolaas

(1641-1717) Mayor of Amsterdam; member in the Directorate of the Dutch East India Company (Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie; VOC); traveled in north Eastern Europe and Russia, and published the first map of Siberia (1690).

PG: Asia(8°)-6

Wolff, Christian

(1679-1754) German philosopher and mathematician; professor at Halle and Marburg. Kant’s library included Wolff’s Elementa matheseos universae, vols. 1-2 (1713, 1715), Philosophia prima, sive Ontologia (1730), Der Anfangs-Gründe aller Mathematischen Wissenschaften (1750; 1st ed: 1710), and Auszug aus den Anfangs-Gründen aller Mathematischen Wissenschaften (1749; 1st ed: 1717).

MP: Prol-2; Ont 7-1; OC-A1, -A5, -A8, -B2; RP 742-A1

MO: 43(B)-4

PG: Springs(8°)-2

LO: 37-2; 37a-1

Wood, Robert

(1717-1771) Irish-English scholar and politician who travelled to the Levant in 1750-51, resulting in brief but important publications on the ruins at Palmyra (1753) in modern-day Syria, and Balbec or Heliopolis (1757) in modern-day Lebanon.

PG: Land(4°)-12*

Woodward, John

(1665-1728) English geologist, physicist, and member of the London Royal Society (1693). Published An Essay toward a Natural History of the Earth (1695; German: 1744); An Attempt towards a Natural History of the Fossils of England, 2 vols. (1728-29).

PG: Land(8°)-5; History(8°)-7

X[ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ]


Also: Xekia. A Japanese variant of Buddha.

PG: Asia(8°)-2, -3

Xerxes I, the Great

(c. 519 BCE-465 BCE) Persian king, son and successor of Darius I.

MP: EP 531-B8

MO: 43(B)-5

Xylander, Guilielmus [Wilhelm Holtzman]

(1532-1576) Mathematician, translated Greek mathematical texts into Latin.

VA: Mathematics-A3

Z[ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ]

Zeno of Elea

(c.590 BCE-c.430 BCE) Presocratic Greek philosopher asssociated with the Eleatic school of Parmenides, famous for his arguments against motion and plurality.

LO: 37-2

Zenobia, Iulia Aurelia, Septimia

(3rd century CE) Queen of Palmyra (from 267); her troops were defeated by those of Emperor Aurelius in a battle near Antioch (272). Ancient sources differ on the particulars of her life.

PG: History(8°)-4


Followers of Zoroaster (also: Zarathustra), the Persian founder of Zorastrianism who probably lived in the 6th or 7th century.

MP: RP/NT 763-E4