19th Century Philosophy (PHIL 320)
Reading and Essay Schedule
(1) Lloyd Spencer and Andrzej Krauze, Introducing Hegel (Totem Books/USA, 1996). [ISBN: 1-84046-111-X]
(2) Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, The Phenomenology of Spirit, transl. A. V. Miller (Oxford UP, 1979). [ISBN: 9780198245971]
(3) Soren Kierkegaard, Fear and Trembling, edited by C. Stephen Evans and Sylvia Walsh (Cambridge UP, 2006). [ISBN: 978-0-521-61269-2]
(4) Friedrich Nietzsche, The Gay Science, transl. Walter Kaufmann (Vintage/Random House, 1974). [ISBN: 0-394719-85-9]
(5) Friedrich Nietzsche, On the Genealogy of Morality, transl. Maudemarie Clark and Alan J. Swensen (Hackett, 1998). [ISBN: 0-87220-283-6]
(6) Handouts of texts by Hegel, Arthur Schopenhauer (selections from The World as Will and Representation), and Karl Marx (selections from various writings).
Wed, Sep 1
Overview of Philosophy in the 19th Century
Fri, Sep 3
Review of Kant
Reading: Eagleton, “The Enlightenment is Dead” (ANGEL); Naragon, “Kant’s Revolution” (ANGEL)
Essay: In your own words — and in response to the readings for today — explain what you take reason (understood as a kind of human ability) to be. [rubric]
• Video: Three Minute Kant [video]
• Video: Geoffrey Warnock on Kant (Brian Magee interview) [video]
• Audio: Adrian Moore explains Kant’s Metaphysics (Philosophy Bites)(19m 58s) [audio]
• Video: Kant and the Matrix (1m 56s) [video]
Mon, Sep 6
——— No Class ———
Wed, Sep 8
Reading: Spencer/Krauze, pp. 1-51; Beiser, “The Enlightenment and German Idealism” [.pdf].
Fri, Sep 10
Introduction to Hegel
Reading: Spencer/Krauze, pp. 74-91
Essay: What does Hegel mean by ‘dialectic’? What are some examples? [rubric]
Mon, Sep 13
Reading: Hegel, The Phenomenology of Spirit (1807), §§73-89, 90-110; Spencer/Krauze, pp. 52-59.
Essay: Write a paraphrase (= your own well-chosen words) of §§90-94. [rubric]
Wed, Sep 15
Fri, Sep 17
The Master/Slave Dialectic
Reading: Hegel, The Phenomenology of Spirit (1807), §§166-77, 178-96; Spencer/Krauze, pp. 60-63.
Essay: Explain in your own words what Hegel has in mind by the “Lordship and Bondage” dialectic. Paragraphs 179-81 form a convenient summary of the entire passage, so you should paraphrase this, and refer to other passages to elaborate. [rubric]
Mon, Sep 20
Wed, Sep 22
Reading: Hegel, The Phenomenology of Spirit (1807), §§788-808; Spencer/Krauze, pp. 64-65.
Fri, Sep 24
Reading: Hegel, “Introduction” to the Encyclopedia (1st ed: 1817; 3rd ed: 1830). §§1-18 only (ANGEL); Spencer/Krauze, pp. 66-95.
Essay: Describe and evaluate Hegel’s use of the word ‘encyclopedia’. [rubric]
Mon, Sep 27
Wed, Sep 29
Reading: The World as Will and Representation, vol. 1, §§17-18.
Fri, Oct 1
Reading: The World as Will and Representation, vol. 1, §19.
Essay: In the final paragraph of §19 of Schopenhauer’s World as Will and Representation, Part One, Schopenhauer writes that he will use the body “as a key to the inner being of every phenomenon in nature.” Explain how he does this, and what he discovers. [rubric]
Mon, Oct 4
Reading: The World as Will and Representation, vol. 2, §18-19, pp. 191-220.
Essay: Schopenhauer writes of a “fundamental error of all philosophers” near the end of §2 of ch. 19 (p. 206). What is this error? Briefly summarize the arguments he provides for his claim in §§3-4 that follow. [rubric]
Wed, Oct 6
Reading: The World as Will and Representation, vol. 2, §19, pp. 220-44.
Essay: What does Schopenhauer understand to be the essential or real person? Do you agree? [rubric]
Fri, Oct 8
Mon, Oct 11
Introduction to Marx
Reading: Spencer/Krauze, pp. 148-71.
Wed, Oct 13
Reading: “Introduction” to A Contribution to the Critique of Hegel’s Theory of Right (ANGEL).
Essay: This selection includes an early appraisal by Marx of religion. Explain and evaluate this appraisal. [rubric]
Fri, Oct 15
Reading: Paris Manuscripts: Alienated Labor (ANGEL).
Essay: ‘Alienated labor’ is a central concept in the Paris Manuscripts. Give a brief account of this concept, referring to the text when appropriate. [rubric]
Mon, Oct 18
——— Fall Break ———
Wed, Oct 20
Reading: “Theses on Feuerbach” (ANGEL).
Essay: Marx discusses the human essence in theses 6-10. What does he mean by this? Do you agree with him? [rubric]
Fri, Oct 22
Reading: German Ideology (ANGEL).
Essay: Marx and Engels discuss the “materialist method” in ¶¶13-17 of The German Ideology (of the selection I printed out for you). They then describe some stages of material/economic development (¶¶18-27). Please summarize/paraphrase these paragraphs, and be sure to indicate the paragraph numbers as you go (these are numbers that I added to your reprint of the selection, to make referencing passages easier). [rubric]
Mon, Oct 25
Reading: German Ideology (cont.)
Wed, Oct 27
Reading: Communist Manifesto (ANGEL).
Essay: What is the relationship between the bourgeoisie and the proletariat, as described in the Communist Manifesto? (Be sure to cite passages.) [rubric]
Video: The Internationale (Hungarian, with English subtitles) [YouTube].
Video: Communism (Coronet Films 1952) [DailyMotion].
Fri, Oct 29
Reading: “Preface” to a Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy (ANGEL).
Mon, Nov 1
Wed, Nov 3
Introduction to Kierkegaard
Essay: At different times in the recent past, but especially with Kierkegaard, there has been considerable talk about authenticity. What do you think it means to be “authentic”? Examples? [rubric]
• Website: Kierkegaard Biography [www.sorenkierkegaard.org]
• Video: Robert Solomon on Existentialism (clip from Waking Life) [video]
Fri, Nov 5
Fear and Trembling
Reading: Fear and Trembling: “Preface” + “Tuning Up”
Essay: Explain Kierkegaard’s allegories of the weaning child. What is being signified by the breast, the mother, and the child? Are they the same in every version of the story? [rubric]
Mon, Nov 8
Reading: Fear and Trembling: “Tribute to Abraham” and “Preliminary Outpouring.”
Essay: Kierkegaard discusses the “knight of infinite resignation” and the “knight of faith” — compare and contrast these two figures. [rubric]
Wed, Nov 10
Reading: Fear and Trembling: “Problem I.”
Essay: Explain the following passage from p. 47: “Faith is exactly this paradox, that the single individual is higher than the universal.” [rubric]
• Video: Kierkegaard for '08 [YouTube]
Fri, Nov 12
Reading: Fear and Trembling: “Problem II.”
Essay: Is there an absolute duty to God? How does Kierkegaard answer this question, and how does he justify his answer? [rubric]
Mon, Nov 15
Reading: Fear and Trembling: “Problem III.”
Essay: Abraham cannot speak. Explain why this is so. [rubric]
Wed, Nov 17
Reading: Genealogy of Morality, 1st Treatise
Essay: Explain what Nietzsche means by ‘good’, ‘bad’, and ‘evil’. [rubric]
• Texts: Nietzsche texts and manuscripts [website]
Fri, Nov 19
Reading: Genealogy of Morality, 2nd Treatise
Essay: How does Nietzsche explain the move from a pre-moral state to a moral state? [rubric]
Mon, Nov 22
Reading: Genealogy of Morality, 3rd Treatise
Essay: Why does Nietzsche find the “ascetic ideal” important? [rubric]
Wed, Nov 24 - Fri, Nov 26
——— Thanksgiving ———
Mon, Nov 29
Reading: Gay Science, Preface to 2nd ed. + §§1-3, 54-58, 99-107.
Essay: Connect §4 (of the Preface) and §57 (the opening section of Book Two) — making use of the surrounding texts as appropriate. [rubric]
Wed, Dec 1
Reading: Gay Science, §§108-25.
Essay: Comment on §108 of The Gay Science. What does Nietzsche mean by “the shadows of God”? [rubric]
Fri, Dec 3
——— No Class ———
Mon, Dec 6
Reading: Gay Science, §§2764-75, 276-90.
Essay: What one thing is needful, according to Herr Nietzsche? (Note also his discussion in Genealogy of Morality, 3rd Treatise, §16.) [rubric]
Wed, Dec 8
Reading: Gay Science, §§333, 335, 340-42, 343-60.
Essay: Comment on the last paragraph of §354 of The Gay Science. [rubric]
Fri, Dec 10
Reading: Gay Science, §§370-83.
Essay: Comment on §374 of The Gay Science. [rubric]