[Index of Königsberg Professors]

Langhansen, Christoph (1691-1770)

1706 (Sep 25): Matriculation (Königsberg).

1712 (Jul 13): Magister (Jena).

1714 (Sep 24): AR.

1715: Lecturer in Philosophy (Königsberg).* (PR: 5/3)

1716: Assoc. Prof. of Mathematics.*

1717 (Nov 2): Dr. of Theology.

1718: Assoc. Prof. of Theology.*

1719-65: Full Prof. of Mathematics, and inspector of the Alumnat (replacing Blaesing).*

1719 (Nov 29): Member of the Berlin Academy of Sciences.

1721 (Oct 20): 3rd Court chaplain.

1725: 5th Full Prof. of Theology.*

1732-65: 2nd Full Prof. of Theology.

1753: 2nd court chaplain (under Quandt); consistory advisor.

Christoph Langhansen was born (9 Nov 1691) and died (14 Mar 1770) in Königsberg. He was a son-in-law of Heinrich Lysius [bio] and a proponent of Pietism [glossary]; not to be confused with his father, Christian (1660-1727)[1], who was also a mathematician and theologian (and pastor and teacher at the Altstadt school), but a declared enemy of Pietism. Served as rector five times. It was because of his death that Kant was able to procure his position as full professor by suggesting that either Christiani (a brother-in-law to Langhansen) give up his chair of Practical Philosophy or that Buck give up his chair of Logic and Metaphysics, and assume the vacated chair of Mathematics. The government in Berlin chose the latter course. Kant wrote a memorial verse in his honor: “Dem, der die äuß’re Welt nach Maaß und Zahl verstand, / Ist, was sich uns verbirgt, das Inn’re dort bekannt. / Was stolze Wissenschaft umsonst hier will erwerben, / Lernt weise Einfalt dort im Augenblick: durch’s Sterben” (AA 12:395). Hagelgans [1737] lists Langhansen as Full Prof. of Theology, of Mathematics, and as Collegii Inspector. [Sources: Hagelgans 1737; Arnoldt 1746, ii.379, 419, 468; Arnoldt 1777, 10, 14-15; Pisanski 1886, 259; Gause 1996, ii.247; APB; NDB] [last update: 21 May 2007]

[1] The father died on 19 Feb 1727, after suffering a stroke in August 1725 [Arnoldt 1777, 35]

Lau, Theodor Ludwig (1670-1740)

1725: Dr. of Law (Erfurt).

Born (Jun 15) in Königsberg, died (February) in Altona. Studied in Königsberg and Halle (where he studied under Buddeus and Thomasius); traveled several years in Holland (1695-98), England, and France; served as the Furstlicher Curländischer Staatsrath and Cabinetsdirector, which ended in 1711 with the death of the Herzog.

Lau published anonymously a short Spinozistic book — Meditationes Philosophicae de Deo, Mundo, Homine ([Frankfurt/Main]: 1717, no place or publisher indicated) — which was instantly condemned by the local pastors and publicly burned, and led to Lau’s brief incarceration. He eventually returned to Königsberg, but is presented by Arnoldt as having not served at the university, which is plausible given Lau’s notoreity as an “atheist” following the affair in Frankfurt. [Sources: Arnoldt 1746, ii.523-6; Israel 652-54]

Laudien, Theodor (1686-1752)

1703 (Jul 16): Matriculation (Königsberg).

1713 (Apr 20): Magister (Königsberg).

1713: Lecturer in Philosophy (Königsberg).*

1717: Pastor in Cauen (Lithuania).

1722: Deacon in Tilsit.

Also: Laudin. Born (Jul 17) in Neuhausen (in Pr.), died in Tilsit (Oct 3). [Sources: Arnoldt 1756, 159; Arnoldt 1777, 141]

Lehmann, Johann Friedrich Gottlieb (1763-1821)

1794: Teacher at Collegium Fridericianum.

1798: Dr. of Philosophy; Lecturer (WS 1798/99).

1800: Assoc. Prof. of Philosophy (Königsberg).

1802: Director of the Cathedral school.

1818: Retired.

Born (possibly in 1764) in Reetz (in the Neumark), died in Königsberg; son of a pastor. Attended the Pädagogium and the university in Halle, receiving the magister degree. Matriculated at the Albertina in 1794 (Mar 21), presumably as a teacher at the Collegium Fridericianum. Promoted to Dr. of Philosophy at Königsberg and begins teaching as a lecturer (WS 1798/99), later promoted to Assoc. Prof. His course offerings were routinely based on Kant’s texts, perhaps more so than anyone else at the university at that time (Pörschke, Jäsche, Rink, and the theology professor J. E. Schulz were others teaching Kant’s new philosophy during the 1790s at Königsberg). Hartung gives his death-year as 1822. [Sources: APB; Metzger 1804, 69; Hartung 1825, 265] [last update: 28 May 2007]

L’Estocq, Johann Ludwig von (1712-1779)

1736: Advokat & Notar (Königsberg).

1740: Hofgerichtsadvokat.

1743: Kriegsrat.

1744: Prof. of Law (Königsberg); City Advisor.

1750: 4th Full Prof. of Law (Königsberg).

1751: 3rd Full Prof. of Law (Königsberg).

1765: 2nd Full Prof. of Law (Königsberg).

1771: 1st Full Prof. of Law and Chancellor of the University (Königsberg).

Johann Ludwig von L’Estocq was born (1712) in Aftinten (Preussen), and died (1 Feb 1779) in Königsberg. He was the son of a military officer. He studied in Halle, became a Professor of Law at Könïgsberg, then finally Chancellor of the University once he assumed the first chair of law. A devotee of good music. First classes listed in the Catalog: SS 1747. Gause offers a story of Johann Georg Scheffner [bio], in later life a good friend of Kant’s, who as a student at the university at first avoided Kant’s lectures because he was staying with L’Estocq, who advised Scheffner to avoid Kant because he thought so little of music (“der sich aus Musik nichts machte”). Kant’s relationship with music must have been widely understood; when Borowski was asked whether Kant was musical, he replied: “Certainly not.”

Kant wrote a memorial verse in honor of L’Estocq:

Der Weltlauf schildert sich so jedem Auge ab,
Wie ihn der Spiegel malt, den die Natur ihm gab.
Dem scheint's ein Gaukelspiel zum Lachen, dem zum Weinen,
Der lebt nur zum Genuß, der Andre nur zum Scheinen.
Gleich blinde Thorheit gafft einander spöttisch an;
Der tandelt bis ins Grab, der schwärmt im finstern Wahn.
Wird eine Regel nur dem Herzen nicht entrissen:
Sei menschlich, redlich, treu und schuldfrei im Gewissen!
(So lautet L’Estocq's Lob!) das Andre ist nur Spiel,
Denn Mensch und weise sein ist Sterblichen zu viel!
 (AA 12:396)

[Sources: Arnoldt 1756, 49; Reicke 1860, 34; APB; Gause 1996, ii.259] [last update: 25 Feb 2007]

Lilienthal, Michael (1686-1750)

1700 (Jul 19): Matriculation (Königsberg).

1706 (Oct 21): Magister (Jena).

1711 (Jul 6): AR

1711 (Dec 2): PR, Lecturer in Philosophy.*

1711 (Jan 25): Member of the Berlin Academy of Sciences.

1713: 2nd inspector of the Alumnat (replacing Boese).

1714-15: 2nd Librarian, University Library.

1715: Deacon at the Cathedral (Kneiphof).

1719: Pastor at the Altstadt Church.

1726-50: 1st Librarian, City Library (replaced G. S. Bayer).

1733: Honorary professor at St. Petersburg.

Michael Lilienthal was born (8 Sep 1686) in Liebstadt, and died (23 Jan 1750)[1] in Königsberg; he was the son of a landed nobleman. Married Kant’s parents (Johann Georg Kant and Anna Regina Reuterin) on 13 November 1715 in the Cathedral. While city librarian, he purchased an overwhelming number of pietist-influenced books; but he also facilitated the wider public use of the library. Member of the Berlin Academy of Sciences and honorary professor of the Academy of Sciences at St. Petersburg. Never received a professorship at Königsberg. Hagelgans [1737] lists him as “Theol. & Phil. Prof. Academ. Petropol. & Berolin. socius.” A longer biography of Lilienthal is also available. [Sources: Arnoldt 1746, i.347; Arnoldt 1777, 41; APB; ADB; Klemme 1994, 4] [last update: 21 May 2007]

[1] Arnoldt [1777, 41] claims 20 Jan 1750.

Lilienthal, Theodor Christoph (1717-1781)[1]

1730 (Jun 25): Matriculation (Königsberg).

1736: Moved to Jena.

1736-40: Travels in England.

1737 (Mar 13): Magister (Jena).

1740 (Jul 23): AR, Lecturer in Philosophy (Königsberg).*

1744: Doctor (Aug 31) and Assoc. Prof. of Theology;* 2nd inspector of the Alumnat (replacing Danovius).

1746: Pastor at the Neuroßgarten Church.

1750-82: 1st Librarian, City Library (replaced his father, Michael Lilienthal).

1751: 7th Full Prof. of Theology.

1759: 5th Full Prof. of Theology (Königsberg).

1763: 1st Pastor at the Cathedral.

1769: 4th Full Prof. of Theology (Königsberg).

1772: 2nd Full Prof. of Theology (replacing Arnoldt).

1776: 1st Full Prof. of Theology (Königsberg).

Theodor Christoph Lilienthal was born (8 October 1717) and died (7 March 1781) in Königsberg; son of Michael Lilienthal (see above). Served as rector three times. He taught reformation church history, but especially dogmatics. Herder studied under him, and on his passing wrote that “the Academy suffered a great loss; Germany does not have many Lilienthals.”[2] Kant wrote a brief verse on the occasion of his death.[3] Metzger remembers him as an exceptionally learned theologian and mild-mannered in temperament, never taking part in doctrinal controversies. [Sources: Arnoldt 1746, i.348; Arnoldt 1769, 31-3; Arnoldt 1777, 45, 50; Metzger 1804, 35-6; Rhesa 1834, 15; APB; ADB; Wotschke 1929/30, 58] [last update: 9 Mar 2013]

[1] Malter [1990, 65] and the AA ed. puts his life-years at 1712-1782, and Rhesa [1834, 15] gives his death date as 17 March 1782. Arnoldt gives the birth date as 8 Oct 1717; I follow Arnoldt and ADB.

[2] Arnold/Dobbek, Briefe Gesamtausgabe; on Herder's professors, see vol. 1, letter #41 (to I. J. von Essen, Jan/Feb 1768); on Lilienthal’s death, see vol. 4, letter #221 (to J. G. Hamann, Jul 1782).

[3] “Was auf das Leben folgt, deckt tiefe Finsterniß; / Was uns zu thun gebührt, des sind wir nur gewiß. / Dem kann, wie Lilienthal, kein Tod die Hofnung rauben, / Der glaubt um recht zu thun, recht thut um froh zu glauben” (AA 12:397).

Lindner, Johann Gotthelf (1729-1776)

1736-44: Attended the Collegium Fridericianum.

1744 (Sep 26): Matriculation (Königsberg).

1748-50: Teacher at Collegium Fridericianum.

1750 (Apr 14): Magister (Königsberg).

1750: Lecturer in Philosophy.

1752/55: Conrector/Rector and Inspector of the Cathedral School (Riga).

1765 (Jun 12): AR, Full Prof. of Poetry.* (PL: 7/11)

1772 (Oct 30): 3rd court chaplain; Director of the German Society.

1773 (Oct 21): Doctor and Assoc. Prof. of Theology.*[1]

1775: Kirchen- and Schulrat; Pastor at Löbenicht.

Also: Gotthilf. Johann Gotthelf Lindner was born (11 Sep 1729) in Schmolsin (by Stolp, in Pommern), and died (29 Mar 1776) in Königsberg; he was the son of a pastor. Attended the Collegium Fridericianum, then the Albertina, and taught for a few years at the former, then at the Kneiphof (Cathedral) School, end eventually moved to Riga where he spent ten years as the rector at that school. In 1765 he returned to Königsberg to teach at the university (1st semester in the Catalog: SS 1763 [!], and then SS 1765, etc.). Lindner’s application for the inspector’s position at the Collegium Fridericianum was supported by the government, but D. H. Arnoldt managed to block it in favor of Christoph Samuel Domsien. Lindner was a friend of Kant’s (from student days) and Hamann’s, and eventually the latter’s confessor. [letters: 10, 12, 13, 16, ++; see AA 13:652] [Sources: Arnoldt 1777, 15; ADB; Klemme 1994, 29-30] [last update: 21 May 2007]

Select Publications:

Anweisung zur guten Schreibart überhaupt und zur Beredsamkeit (Königsberg 1755).

Kurzer Inbegriff der Aesthetik, Redekunst und Dichtkunst (Königsberg 1771-72).

[1] Arnoldt [1777, 15] gives his promotion date as October 28.

Lokk, Johann Ludolf (16??-17??)

1699 (Mar 10): Matriculation (Königsberg).

Lecturer in Philosophy.

Lysius, Heinrich (1670-1731)

1702 (Nov 4): Dr. of Theology (Halle).

1702 (Nov 30): Matriculated as Assoc. Prof. of Theology (at the Albertina) and as Director (until 1729) and Inspector of the Collegium Fridericianum.

1709 (Nov 14): 3rd Prof. of Theology.[1]

1715: 3rd court chaplain at the Castle Church; consistory advisor.

1718: Inspector of schools and churches in Lithuania; 2nd Prof. of Theology.

1721: 1st Prof. of Theology; pastor in the Lobenicht Church.

Heinrich Lysius was born (24 Oct 1670) in Flensburg, and died (16 Oct 1731) in Königsberg. He was the son of a pastor. Studied at Jena, Leipzig, Königsberg, and Halle. A fiery, irascible Pietist whom Spener brought to Königsberg to serve as the first director of the Collegium Fridericianum, raising its enrollment to 400 pupils. He also taught theology at the university and served as chaplain in the Löbenicht Church. He made enemies throughout the university, and was suspected by the Aristotelians of being a Cartesian and Copernican. A Royal order was required before the theology faculty allowed him to lecture as an associate professor. His engraving can be found as the frontespiece of Michael Lilienthal’s Acta Borussica, vol. 3 (1732). [Sources: Acta Borussica 1731, 946; Arnoldt 1777, 14, 60; Goldbeck 1782, 204-9; NDB; Klemme 1994, 15-20] [last update: 1 Jun 2011]

[1] Arnoldt claims he matriculated in Königsberg in 1701, was promoted to Dr. of Thelogy (in Halle) on 4 Nov 1702, and became the 4th Prof. in 1709 [1746, ii.213].

Lysius, Johann Heinrich (1704-1745)

1718 (Sep 19): Matriculation (Königsberg).

1725 (Jun 11): Magister (Halle).

1726 (Aug 8)-1736 (SS): AR, Assoc. Prof. of Oriental Languages.

1727: Inspector of the synagogue.

1729: Inspector of the Löbenicht church.

1730 (Jun 22): Dr. of Theology (Königsberg) and Assoc. Prof. of Theology.

1730, 1731: Adjunct, then Consistory Advisor.

1732: 5th Full Prof. of Theology.

1733: 4th Full Prof. of Theology.

Johann Heinrich Lysius was born (29 Jun 1704) and died (29 Mar 1745)[1] in Königsberg; he was the son of Heinrich Lysius (see above). He gave up his associate professorship of oriental languages once he became a full professor of theology (with the WS 1732/33). [Sources: Hagelgans 1737; Arnoldt 1746, ii.189-90, 219, 422; Arnoldt 1777, 61; Pisanski 1886, 637] [last update: 23 May 2007]

[1] Arnoldt [1777, 61] gives the death date as 28 March 1745.

[2] Did he have a brother, Johann Christoph, teaching law at Königsberg? Oberhausen/Pozzo [1999] shows a Johann Christoph (or Christian) Lysius (1708-1740) teaching in the law faculty WS 1737/38-WS 1739/40. The Matrikel shows a Joh. Christ. Lysius of Königsberg matriculating on 8 October 1724; Heinrich Lysius was rector at the time.

Mangelsdorff, Karl Ehregott Andreas (1748-1802)

1770: Magister (Leipzig).

1777: Lecturer (Halle).

1782: Full Prof. of Rhetoric and History (Königsberg).

1784: Full Prof. of Poetry (in addition to History) (Königsberg).

Born (1748) in Dresden, died (1802) in Königsberg. He taught in Dessau at Basedow’s Philanthropinum, also translating Basedow’s Elementarwerk into Latin, and began lecturing at Halle in 1777, moving to Königsberg in 1782. He also served as censor for the theater. Kant met him shortly after his arrival in Königsberg,[1] at a dinner hosted by Oberburggrafen Jakob Friedrich von Rohd, and Kant loaned Mangelsdorff various household necessities until his belongings arrived by ship. Kant tried unsuccessfully to talk him into moving into his house and opening a pension for school children, in the hopes of furthering school reform in Prussia. Mangelsdorff’s arrival in Königsberg was attended by some controversy regarding his payment: see Kant’s letter to Reichardt (22 October 1782) and Reichardt’s reply (Nov. 15). See also Mangelsdorff letter to Kant (Oct. 15, 1782) [NB. his comments on teaching]. He arrived in Königsberg on October 20, and hoped to begin lecturing on Monday, Nov. 4 (a good month into the semester). Metzger notes that he had 12 children, and that his “not entirely regular diet” likely contributed to his early death. [Sources: Metzger 1804, 53; APB; Gause 1996, ii.241]

Select Publications:

Versuch einer Darstellung dessen, was seit Jahrtausenden im Betreff des Erziehungswesens gesagt und gethan worden ist, nebst einer freyen Beurtheilung der Basedowischen Anstalten und anderer dahin gehörigen Materien (Leipzig, 1779), xiv, 442 pp.

Entdeckung von Amerika (Halle, 1780).

Entwurf der neuen europäischen Staatengeschichte zum Gebrauch akademischer Vorlesungen (Halle: Waisenhaus, 1780), 272 pp.

Allgemeine Geschichte der europäischen Staaten, ein durchaus verständliches Lesebuch zur nützlichen Unterhaltung (Halle: J. G. Heller, 1790-).

Versuch einer kurzen aber nicht mangelhaften Darstellung der Teutschen Geschichte für gebildete Leser (Leipzig, 1799).

[1] Kant recounts this meeting in a letter to Reichardt (22 Oct 1782): “Professor Mangelsdorff arrived two evenings ago, and yesterday at lunch, at the table of Oberburggraf von Rohd, I made his personal acquaintance for the first time (we had already come into contact by mail, as I was helping him with some matters)” [AA 10: 290].

Marquardt, Konrad Gottlieb (1694-1749)

1711: Matriculation (Königsberg).

1718: Studying in Halle.

1720: Magister (Jena).

1722: Lecturer in Mathematics (Königsberg).*

1730/31 (WS): Assoc. Prof. of Mathematics (Königsberg).*

Born (Oct 20) in Dollstädt (Kreis Pr. Eylau), died (Feb 17) in Königsberg; the son of a pastor. Studied theology, languages, and mathematics in Königsberg and philosophy in Halle and in Jena. Became a Wolffian in Halle, and wrote a dissertation supporting pre-established harmony (De harmonia praestabilita inter animam et corpus, Königsberg, 1722). His lectures on logic and metaphysics were quite popular, and he still taught theology, philosophy, and mathematics when Kant studied at the university. The only textbook found in Kant’s library that stems from his student years was Marquardt’s book on astronomy. The rise of Pietism at the university ended his career. Hagelgans [1737] inadvertently lists him as Full Prof. of Mathematics. [Sources: Ludovici 1735, i.344, 364; Meusel; APB; NDB; Selle 1956, 132; Wotschke 1928, 79]

Masecovius, Christian (1673-1732)

1690: Matriculation (Königsberg).

1700 (Apr 15): Magister.

1703: 2nd inspector of the Alumnat (replacing Segers).

1708: Consistory advisor & pastor, Löbenicht Church.

1710 (Feb 27): Dr. of Theology; Assoc. Prof. of Theology (Königsberg).

1717: 4th Full Prof. of Theology; pastor at the Cathedral (Kneiphof).

1721: 2nd Full Prof. of Theology (Königsberg).

1732: 1st Full Prof. of Theology (Königsberg).

Also: Mascov. Born (6 Mar 1673) and died (7 Aug 1732) in Königsberg; the son of Thomas Masecovius (1630-1696), the pastor of the Tragheim Church. Served three times as rector. Referred to as a rather impatient opponent of Pietism [glossary]; brother-in-law to Michael Schreiber [bio], a professor of rhetoric. [Sources: Arnoldt 1746, i.347; ii.432; Arnoldt 1777, 49, 60; APB; Gause 1996, ii.120]

Masecovius, Samuel (16??-1738)

1702: Prorector at the Löbenicht School (Königsberg).

1704 (Sep 18): Magister (Königsberg).

1705: Lecturer in Philosophy.*

1706: Assistant Deacon, Tragheim Church.

1710: Pastor, Royal Hospital.

Also: Mascov. Born in Friedenberg (Pr.), died (Feb 28) in Königsberg. [Sources: Arnoldt 1756, 165-66; Arnoldt 1777, 19; Pisanski, 1886, 524] [last update: 21 May 2007]

Meckelburg, Jacob (1697?-1770)

1720 (Feb 10): Magister (Leipzig).

1723: Lecturer in Philosophy.*

1726-29: 2nd Librarian, City Library.

1729: Adjunct Deacon at the Löbenicht Church.

1734: Deacon at the Löbenicht Church.

Also: Mekelburg. Born and died (29 Aug 1770) in Königsberg, “in his 74th year.” Included in Ludovici’s list of Wolffians, he wrote De habitu theologia naturalis ad virtutem (Königsberg, 1723 [March 17]). [Sources: Ludovici 1735, i.344, 367; Arnoldt; Arnoldt 1777 Pisanski 1886, 498] [last update: 23 May 2007]

Melhorn, Christoph Friedrich (1694-1757)

1718: Commisions Secretary (Königsberg).

1722: Dr. of Law.

Born (Sep 21) and died (June) in Königsberg. Lecturer in Philosophy. [Sources: Arnoldt 1769, 109; Meusel]

Meltzer, Christoph Daniel (1698-1747)

1714: Matriculation (Königsberg).

1720: Dr. of Medicine.

1722: Assoc. Prof. of Medicine?

1728: 4th Full Prof. of Medicine.

1737: Court and consistory advisor.

1741: 3rd Full Prof. of Medicine.

Born in Medenau (Kreis Fischhausen), died in Königsberg; the son of a pastor. Father-in-law to Christoph Gottlieb Büttner [bio]. [Sources: Hagelgans 1737; Arnoldt 1746, ii.318-19; Pisanski 1886, 614; APB]

Metzger, Johann Daniel (1739-1805)

1770: Dr. of Medicine; Lecturer of Medicine (Strassburg).

1777: Full Prof. of Medicine (Königsberg).

Born in Strassburg, died in Königsberg. Studied in Strassburg. Studied in Königsberg and attended Kant’s lectures (although he does not appear in the Matrikel — perhaps under a Latin variant?). A gifted professor, especially interested in the history of medicine. Strong critic of Brownian medicine, of Gall’s theories, and of Mesmerism. Also a critic of Kant on several occasions. Metzger, as rector, appears to have been the moving force to retire Kant from the senate. He published (anonymously) the first biography of Kant after his death, as well as a report on the university [1804]. [See also Kant’s letter to Metzger (Dec. 31, 1782).] [On his relationship to Kant, see Altpr. M. Schr. 46, 618.] [Sources: Metzger 1804, 61-2; Hartung 1825, 266; APB; Gause 1996, ii.238, 254; NDB; ]

Select Publications:

Kurzgefaßtes System der gerichtlichen Arzneywissenschaft, 2nd improved ed. (Königsberg, Leipzig: Hartung, 1798), xvi, 445 pp.

Unterricht in der Wundarzneykunst, zum akademischen Gebrauch entworfen (Königsberg: Hartung, 1798), xvi, 472 pp.

Kurzer Inbegriff der Lehre von der Lustseuche, zum Behuf akad. Vorlesungen (Königsberg: Göbbels u. Unzer, 1800), xvi, 228 pp.

Ueber die Krankheiten sämmtlicher zur Oekonomie gehörigen Hausthiere, ein zum Behuf akademischer Vorlesungen bestimmtes Handbuch (Königsberg: Göbbels und Unzer, 1802), xvi, 184 pp.

Über den menschlichen Kopf in anthropologischer Rücksicht, nebst einigen Bemerkungen über Dr. Galls Hirn- und Schädeltheorie (Königsberg: Goebbels und Unzer, 1803), 133 pp.

(anon.), Über die Universität zu Königsberg. Ein Nachtrag zu Arnoldt und Goldbeck (Königsberg: Gottlieb Lebrecht Hering, 1804), 94 pp.

(anon.), Aeusserungen über Kant, seinen Charakter und seine Meinungen ((no location) 1804), 48 pp.

Lehrsätze zu einer empirischen Psychologie (Königsberg: Goebbels und Unzer, 1805), x, 148 pp.

Meyer, Johann Jacob (16??-17??)

1719: Assoc. Prof. of Logic and Metaphysics.*

Not listed in Oberhausen/Pozzo [1999], nor is he in Arnoldt’s (1746) list of Associate Professors, although Arnoldt does mention a Johann Meyer from Augsburg who served as the first Lutheran pastor at the Orphanage beginning in 1705, assuming a pastorate in Juditten in 1715, where he died (Nov 27) in 1737 (1756, 167).

Milo, Johann Wilhelm (1720-1786)

1745: Lecturer in Philosophy.* (PR: 2/10)

From Domnau. Moved to Frankfurt/Oder where he served as a pastor. [Sources: Pisanski 1886, 707]

Moldenhauer, Johann Heinrich Daniel (1709-1790)

1721-24: Student at the Collegium Fridericianum.

1727: Matriculation at the university (Königsberg).

1730-33: 2nd Inspector of the Coll. Frid, under Schiffert.

1733: Deacon (Kreutzberg).

1737: Deacon at the Sackheim Church (Königsberg).

1744: Dr. of Theology (Aug 31); Assoc. Prof. of Theology.

1748: Church advisor.

1756-63: Librarian, Wallenrodt Library (replaced J. F. Werner).

1764: 6th Full Prof. of Theology.

1765: Pastor and Lector secundus at the Cathedral (Hamburg).

Also: Moldenhawer. Born (10/29) in Halle; died (4/8) in Hamburg. He had collected the largest private library in Königsberg, only to have it destroyed in the fire of 11 November 1764, along with various manuscripts of his own writing. Shortly after that he requested a pastoral appointment in Hamburg, and so never assumed the full professorship in theology, although he appears in the lecture catalog as such for WS 64/65 and SS 65. [Sources: Arnoldt 1746, ii.222-3; Arnoldt 1756, 44; Arnoldt 1769, 33, 36-7; Pisanski 1886, 511; ADB; Klemme 1994, 5]

Neufeldt, Coelestin Conrad (16??-1750)

1720: Lecturer in Philosophy.*

1724/25 (WS): Assoc. Prof. of Literary History.

Also: Neufeld. Neufeldt occupied a temporary chair in the philosophy faculty. G. F. Rogall, who himself just arrived in Königsberg from Halle, describes Neufeldt in a letter of Sept. 18, 1724, who had just held his inaugural disputation. Neufeldt is a miserable incompetent, Rogall writes, who studied little and has relied on the money left him by his father, a pastor. He is widely known as a lascivious drunk (homo sceleratissimus ebrietati et lasciviae deditus), who often had to appear before the rector on account of his behavior. He’s lived here for several years with his title of Magister, having done nothing, but then desired to marry the widow of a professor of medicine [who?], who would take him only if he were a professor. So he bought himself a chair, actually paying the university for the privilege to teach as a Professor historiae litterariae extraordinarius; and because it took place in the philosophy faculty, Lysius wasn’t able to prevent it happening. Thus Rogall’s account. [Sources: Hagelgans 1737; Wotschke 1928]

Nicolai, Daniel (1683-1750)

1698: Matriculation (Königsberg) to study law.

1708: Dr. of Law (Halle).

1708: Returned to Königsberg to work in a private practice.

1709: Assoc. Prof. of Law.

1722: Hofhalsgerichtsbeisitzer and Commercienrat.

1724: Stadtrat.

1726: Tribunalsrat.

1733: Full Prof. of Law.

1741: Mayor of Königsberg.

Born and died in Königsberg; the son of a government court official. Attended the Löbenicht School, studied law in Königsberg and Halle. Besides teaching, Nicolai served in various important capacities in the administration of the city, including mayor. [Sources: Hagelgans 1737; APB; NDB]

Nicolai, Georg Heinrich (16??-1751)

1723 (Apr 2): Magister; Lecturer in Philosophy.*

1724: Army chaplain.

1731: Pastor in Bladiau.

Born in Cremitten, died (May 14) in Bladiau. [Sources: Arnoldt 1769, 112; Arnoldt 1777, 210; Pisanski 1886, 542]

Nikuta, Martin (1741-1812)

????: Matriculation (Königsberg).

1765 (Sep 3): Magister.

1765 (Nov 23): PR.

1766: Professor at the Ritterakademie (Warsaw).

Martin Nikuta was born (1741) in Schaufelsdorf (by Paßenheim). While a student he participated in J. G. Lindner’s pro loco disputation (July 11, 1765). His magister thesis was on De harmonia appetitus sensitivi et rationalis.

Nikuta had aspired for the position of Assistant Librarian at the Castle Library (in the fall of 1765), and was assisting the current, but ailing, Assistant Librarian (Johann Goraisky); but this was given to Kant (April 1766), which likely precipitated Nikuta’s departure for Warsaw, as he had no other means of support in Königsberg. [Sources: Arnoldt 1769, 148; Pisanski 1886, 707; Goldbeck 1781-83, 182-83, 240; Warda 1899b] [last update: 18 Sep 2012]

Select Publications:

D. de harmonia appetitus sensitivi et rationalis (Königsberg, 1765).

Oelmann, Heinrich (1676-1725)

1704 (Sep 18): Magister (Königsberg).

1704: Lecturer in Philosophy.*

1715: Assoc. Prof. of Logic and Metaphysics.*

Born (Oct 27) in Colberg (Pomerania), died (Mar 14) in Königsberg. He lectured from Wolff’s German Logic (SS 1720). Pisanski lists him as an Aristotelian. He endowed (1666 rthlr. 60 gr.) a scholarship for students at Königsberg. [Sources: Arnoldt 1746, ii.15-16, 418-19; Pisanski 1886, 523]

Ohlius, Jakob Henrich (1715-1776)

1730: Matriculation in Königsberg, studying law.

1740: Dr. of Law (Halle).

1741-51: Assoc. Prof. of Law (Königsberg) and Hofhalsgerichtsassessor.

1747: Hofgerichtsrat.

1757: Court Advisor; later Privy Legal Advisor.

Born and died in Königsberg; the son of a government official. [Sources: APB]

Orlovius, Andreas Johann (1735-1788)

1761 (Mar 12): Dr. of Medicine (Königsberg), and 5th Full Prof. of Medicine.

Born (Dec 31). [Sources: Arnoldt 1769, 42; Metzger 1804, 40-1]

Pauli, Gottfried Albert (1685-1745)

1706: Magister (Frankfurt/Oder).

1706: Lecturer in Philosophy.*

1709: Pastor (Carwinden).

1712-45: Consistory of Pomerania and Bishop [Erzpriest] of Saalfeld. [Sources: Pisanski 1886, 597]

Pietsch, Johann Valentin (1690-1733)

1705: Matriculation (Königsberg) to study medicine.

1713 (April): Magister (Frankfurt/Oder).

1715: Returns to Königsberg.

1717 (Nov 11): Magister (Königsberg).

1718: Full Prof. of Poetry.*

1719: Hofrat and Leibmedicus.

Born and died in Königsberg; the son of an important pharmacist. He studied medicine at the university and began a medical practice in Königsberg. After writing a poem on the occasion of the victory of Prince Eugen, however, he received such acclaim that he was offered the Professorship of Poetry in 1717, which he accepted, and continued to practice medicine alongside his teaching. Johann Christoph Gottsched [bio] was his most famous pupil and revered him his life long. Pietsche was succeeded by J. G. Bock [bio], who published his poems in 1740. [Sources: Arnoldt 1746, ii.404, 433; APB; NDB] [last update: 5 May 2007]

Pisanski, Georg Christoph (1725-1790)

1742: Matriculation (Königsberg) to study theology, philosophy, and natural science.

1748: Taught at the Altstadt School.

1750: Conrector, then prorector (1751), at the Altstadt School.

1759: Rector of the Cathedral School (replacing C. C. Flottwell).

1759 (Apr 9): Magister; Lecturer in Philosophy, History, and Rhetoric.*

1773 (Nov 25): Dr. of Theology, and Assoc. Prof. of Theology.

1789: Consistory advisor.

Born (Aug 13) in Johannisburg, died (Oct 11) in Königsberg. He was the son of a chaplain. A prolific writer, his Preußische Literärgeschichte (edited by Rudolf Philippi, Königsberg 1886) is a tour de force of cultural history; it arose out of four academic disputations (held 1762-5), and also served as the basis of a course of lectures; publ. in full in 1790. A longer biography of Pisanski is also available. [Sources: APB; ADB; Pisanski 1886, viii-xx, 475, 565]

Poepping, Heinrich Wilhelm (1698-1752)

1733 (SS): Professor of Law.

Hagelgans [1737] lists him as Full Prof. of Law.

Pörschke, Karl Ludwig (1752-1812)

1768 (Sep 24): Matriculated at Königsberg.

1785: Studied at Halle and Göttingen.

1787: Magister (Königsberg), and Lecturer in Philosophy.*[1] (PR: 4/13)

1794 (Nov 25): Assoc. Prof. of Philosophy (Königsberg).

1803 (May 27): Full Prof. of Poetry (Königsberg).

1806: Full Prof. of Pedagogy and History (in addition to poetry).

1809: Full Prof. of Practical Philosophy.

Karl Ludwig Pörschke was born (10 Jan 1752)[1] in Molsehen (Kreis Königsberg) and died (24 Sep 1812) in Königsberg. He was a student and later close colleague of Kant’s, and a professor of considerable ability and wide-ranging interests. His most significant writings are on aesthetics, and in general they show strong Kantian influences yet with a certain distance from Kant, and in later years he came to admire Fichte’s work.

Pörschke attended the Collegium Fridericianum before his university studies at Königsberg, Halle, and Göttingen. He returned to Königsberg in 1787 and began lecturing. Arnoldt reports that he lectured on the Critique of Pure Reason in SS 1795 [1908-9, v.326]. A longer biography of Pörschke is also available. [Sources: APB; NDB; Hartung 1825, 266] [last update: 27 May 2007]

[1] Arnoldt begins his lectureship with SS 1788 [1908-9, iv.432]. Oberhausen/Pozzo [1999] show him first listed in the Catalog for WS 1787/88, and offering public lectures (primarily on Greek texts) as an associate professorship beginning with SS 1795.

[2] The academy edition gives 1751 as his birth-year.

Quandt, Johann Jakob (1686-1772)

1701: Matriculation (Königsberg), studying philosophy and theology.

1706: Moved to Leipzig.

1707 (Feb 10): Magister (Leipzig).

1710: Lecturer in Philosophy (philology) (Königsberg).*

1714: Studied in Jena.

1715: Dr. of Theology (Rostock).

1714-18: 1st Librarian, City Library.

1716: Assoc. Prof. of Theology.[1]

1717: Pastor in Löbenicht church. [Arnoldt 1746, ii.217: consistory advisor and pastor =1718]

1721: 4th Full Prof. of Theology; 1st court chaplain at the Castle Church.

1733: 1st Full Prof. of Theology.

1736: General superintendant.

Johann Jakob Quandt was born (27 Mar 1686) and died (17 Jan 1772) in Königsberg. He was a member of an old Königsberg family. Attended the Altstadt School, then the university (studying under Rabe), as well as in Leipzig, Halle, and Leyden, becoming a learned orientalist and polyglot, fluent in Hebrew, Arabic, French, English, Italian, and Dutch, as well as Greek and Latin [Klemme 1994, n.114]. His opposition to Pietism [glossary] (and thus to his colleague F. A. Schultz), was inherited from his father, the pastor Johann Quandt. He developed a considerable personal library numbering 8000 volumes, and including English and Dutch books. His Preußische Hausbibel (1734) was the first Bible to be printed in Königsberg, and in 1738 he oversaw the first Polish translation published in Prussia. He published a hymnal (in response to Rogall’s pietist hymnal) in 1743. A great preacher, Frederick the Great called him the best preacher he knew. Served as rector ten times, including WS 1740, when Schultz’s turn was given over to Quandt by the academic senate. [Sources: Hagelgans 1737; Arnoldt 1746, ii.170-71, 189, 216-17; Arnoldt 1777, 10, 60; Pisanski 1886, 565; Borowski 1794; Gause 1996, ii.87, 120; Klemme 1994, 23-4; APB; NDB] [last update: 26 May 2007]

[1] Sources differ on this: APB (1714), Pisanski (1715), Arnoldt(1716).

Rabe, Friedrich (1695-1761)

1723/24 (WS): Prof. of Law.

Hagelgans [1737] lists him as Full Prof. of Law.

Rabe, Paul (1656-1713)

1678 (Sep 22): Magister; Lecturer in Philosophy.

1682: 2nd inspector of the Alumnat.

1685-1703: Full Prof. of Greek.

1703: Full Prof. of Logic and Metaphysics.*

Born (Apr 11) and died (Jun 23) in Königsberg. Important Aristotelian, enemy of Cartesianism. See Pisanski’s description of his work (1886, 520-1). [Sources: Arnoldt 1746, i.158; ii.371, 385, 432; APB]

Rappolt, Karl Heinrich (1702-1753)

1719 (Sep 25): Matriculation (Königsberg).

1724: One month visit to Danzig.

1729-1730: Residence in England to study physics and mathematics.

1731 (Jun 12): Magister (Frankfurt/Oder).

1731/32 (WS): Assoc. Prof. of Physics (Königsberg).*

1734 (May 13): Marriage to Maria Sophia Moritizen.

1735 (Mar 31): Member of the Berlin Academy of Sciences.

Karl Heinrich Rappolt was born on 17 Jun 1702 in Fischhausen (a few miles to the north-west of Königsberg), and died on 23 Oct 1753 in Königsberg. As a nine-year-old child he came to Königsberg to study at the Altstadt school, living with his maternal grandfather (an M. Ohlius) and matriculated at the university in 1719 to study theology. Among others,[1] he attended the lectures of the professor of physics Heinrich von Sanden [bio] and the Wolffians J. H. Kreuschner [bio] and C. G. Fischer [bio], and Fischer persuaded him to abandon theology for physics. In 1721 he took up residence in the home of Michael Lilienthal [bio], as a tutor (Lilienthal’s son, Theodor Christoph [bio], would have been only two at the time, and notes in his biography of Rappolt that he enjoyed nine years of his teaching).[2] When in 1729 the university replaced Sanden with the inexperienced Teske [bio], a Pietist, Rappolt left the university to travel through Germany and Holland, and eventually to England where he spent a year studying physics. On his return to Königsberg, he stopped in Berlin to hear lectures on anatomy. Apart from lecturing on physics at Königsberg,[3] he also taught English and lectured on Alexander Pope; Kant’s love of Pope may well have stemmed from Rappolt [Kuehn 2001]. Rappolt’s close friends included the long-serving professor of medicine, J. C. Bohl [bio], whom he knew since their student days, and his student admirers included T. C. Lilienthal and J. G. Hamann (1730-1788). [Sources: Hagelgans 1737; Arnoldt 1746, ii.423-4; Strodtmann 1754, 138-53; Pisanski 1886, 542; Meusel; Vorländer 1924, i.50; APB; Kuehn 2001, 76-77; Stark 2004b] [last update: 1 Feb 2008]

[1] Lilienthal provides a list of courses studied during his first year [Strodtmann 1754, 140-41]: logic with Kreuschner, Latin with Strimesius history with Beckher [W. H. Becker], science and Wolffian metaphysics with Fischer, Thomasian ethics and politics with Gregorovius, Cartesian logic with Meyer, logic and metaphysics with Rohden, physics with von Sanden, Pliny with Arendts [Johann Arnd], Hebrew with Golzen [??], dogmatic [thetische] and polemical theologie with Behm, disputation with Baumgarten, homiletics with Lilienthal, and algebra with Langhansen. In later years he also studied philosophy with Marquardt, astrognosy with Arnd, an introduction to the Bible with Behm, and human anatomy with Hartmann. Although he gave up his theology studies, he continued to attend Rogall's lectures on the ancient Hebrews and Wolf's lectures on dogmatic theology.

[2] T. C. Lilienthal wrote the biography printed in Strodtmann [1754, 138-53].

[3] Rappolt’s pro loco disputation took place November 3, 1733, somewhat after he began teaching.

Rast, Christian Friedrich (1686-1741)

1713 (Sep 21): Dr. Medicine (Königsberg).

1715: Assoc. Prof. of Medicine.

1729: Adjunct Prof. of Medicine

Born (Nov 24) and died (May 20) in Königsberg; the son of Georg Rast (see below) and brother to Georg Heinrich Rast (see below). Hagelgans [1737] lists him as “Fac. Med. adjunctus.” Arnoldt lists his disputation on “de hydrope ejusque curandi per diaphoretica methodo, cardialgia, dysenteria, polypo, utero ejusque constitutione tempore gestationis.” [Sources: Arnoldt 1746, ii.324, 333]

Rast, Georg (1651-1729)

1678: Dr. Medicine (Leyden).

1682: Assoc. Prof. of Medicine (Königsberg).

1691: Adjunct, Medical Faculty.

1705: Full Prof. of Medicine.

1711: 1st Prof. of Medicine.

1728: Retires.

Born (Mar 16) and died (Jan 14) in Königsberg. A professor of Medicine, and father to Christian Friedrich (see above) and Georg Heinrich (see below). The Acta Bor. [i.145] reports (in its "Nova Litteraria" section): “Emeritus Professor (1st) Dr. Georg Rast, January 24, 1729, in his 79th year, as a result of an unfortunate fall from the steps.” [Sources: APB; Jöcher]

Rast, Georg Heinrich (1695-1726)

1710: Matriculation (Königsberg) to study mathematics.

1718 (Oct 1): Magister (Halle).

1719 (Nov 29): Member of the Berlin Academy of Sciences.

1719: Assoc. Prof. of Mathematics.*

Born (Aug 7) and died (Jun 29) in Königsberg; the son of Georg Rast (see above), and brother to Christian Friedrich Rast (see above). Traveled through Germany, France, Holland, and England (where he met Haley at Oxford). A mathematician and astronomer, he studied under Wolff at Halle, and was among the first to teach Wolff at Königsberg. [Sources: Arnoldt 1746, ii.420; Buck 1764, 156-58; Jöcher; Pisanski 1886, 691; Wotschke 1928, 76f.; APB; NDB; Selle 1956, 131-32]

Rau, Joachim Justus (1713-1745)

1732 (Oct 25): Magister (Jena).

1735: Adjunct to the Philosophy Faculty (Jena).

1736 (Jun 7): Dr. of Theology (Jena).

1736/37 (WS): Assoc. Prof. of Theology and Oriental Languages (Königsberg).*

Born (Apr 11) in Berlin, died (Aug 19) in Königsberg. Rau arrived at the university at Königsberg as a professor, as his matriculation entry of 1 October 1736, reads: “sacrae Theologiae et Philosophiae Doctor et Professor extraordinarius.” Rau gave the morning sermons at the Collegium Fridericianum beginning in 1739 (Kant’s last year there), and was offering courses at the university while Kant was a student [Sources: Arnoldt 1746, ii.220-1, 426; Pisanski 1886, 637; Wotschke 1929/30, 43f.; Klemme 1994, 39]

Select Publications:

Liber Genesios hebraice (Königsberg, 1737).

Kurzgefaßte Anfangsgründe der hebräischen Grammatik (Königsberg, 1738).

Ausführliche Anfangsgründe der hebraischen Grammatik, ed. by G. D. Kypke (Königsberg and Leipzig, 1780).

Reccard, Gotthilf Christian (1735-1798)

1762: Pastor at the Trinity Church and 2nd inspector of the Realschule (Berlin).

1765: Moved to Königsberg; Deacon at the Sackheim Church.

1766 (Oct 7): Dr. of Theology[1] (Königsberg).

1766: 5th Full Prof. of Theology (Königsberg).

1767: Pastor at the Collegium Fridericianum.

1772: Consistory Advisor.

1776-96: Director of the Collegium Fridericianum (replacing D. H. Arnoldt).

Gotthilf Christian Reccard was born in Wernigerode (13 Mar 1735) and died (3 Oct 1798) in Königsberg; he was the son of a deacon. Reccard studied theology at Halle, traveled in England and France after working in Berlin as a pastor and school inspector, then moved to Königsberg. Turned down a mathematics professorship at Königsberg in the mid-60s. He was an enlightened theologian, and his interest in mathematics, astronomy, and geography resulted in a highly successful textbook of the philosophical and mathematical sciences; Metzger claims he was much better known as an astronomer than as a theologian. He built, at his own expense, an observatory next to the parsonage of the Sackheim Church, where he was the pastor (Bernoulli describes viewing Reccard’s library and his scientific instruments, as well as his notebook of astronomical observations, noting that he hopes to build an observatory on a recently purchased piece of land). Recommended by Friedrich II “as a man of enlightened thinking,” he was also an opponent of the local pietists.  He was an uncle by marriage to his younger colleague Christian Jakob Kraus.[2] [Sources: Arnoldt 1769, 32, 37; Arnoldt 1777, 21-22; APB; ADB; Bernoulli 1779, iii.24-28, 36; Goldbeck 1782, 67; Pisanski 1886, 565; Metzger 1804, 36; Rhesa 1834, 6; Konschel 1912, 8; Gause 1996, ii.286] [Letter: 167, +] [last update: 6 Aug 2013]

[1] Arnoldt [1769] gives both 7 Oct 1765 and 7 Oct 1766 as the dates of his promotion; Arnoldt [1777] gives 7 Oct 1766.

[2] At least when Kraus was in Königsberg as a student, they did not appear to enjoy a warm relationship [Krause 1881, 71-72].

Reidenitz, Daniel Christoph (1760-1842)

1776: Matriculation (Königsberg).

1777: Studied in Leipzig.

1788: Dr. of Law; Lecturer (Königsberg).

1789: Assoc. Prof. of Law.

1790: 4th Full Prof. of Law.

1792: Assessor of the East Prussian government.

1796: 3rd Full Prof. of Law; Government advisor.

1802: 2nd Full Prof. of Law.

1803: 1st Full Prof. of Law; Chancellor of the University.

1812: Court advisor.

1822: Privy Legal Advisor.

1840: Higher Legal Advisor.

Also: Reidnitz. Daniel Christoph Reidenitz was born 23 December 1760 (some sources claim 1751) about 40 kilometers northeast of Königsberg in Legitten (by Labiau, now Polessk). His father was a pastor in Legitten and his mother was the daughter of David Vogel (1674-1736), a professor of theology at Königsberg. Reidenitz served in various government capacities in East Prussia and taught law at the university in Königsberg for nearly half a century.

Reidenitz attended the Cathedral School in Königsberg and entered the university there in 1776 to study law, transferring to Leipzig in 1777. He received a doctorate in law at Königsberg eleven years later (1788) and began giving lectures, being promoted the following year to the 4th full professorship of law (1790). In 1803 he was promoted to first professor, whose office included serving as chancellor of the university. He was also appointed to various government offices: assessor of the East Prussian government (1792), government advisor (1796), tribunal advisor (1812), privy court advisor (1822), higher court advisor (1840). He died in Königsberg on 8 or 9 of April 1842.

He lectured on Prussian common law (Landrecht) and East Prussian provincial law beginning with his appointment to full professor, and student notes from his courses have been preserved in the Dohna Library in Schlobitten, as well as in the literary remains of Theodor von Schön. His book on natural law (1803) arose from lectures held each year since 1798 on the “metaphysical first principles of the doctrine of right of Professor Kant,” to whom he also dedicated the book — a popularization of Kant's Rechtslehre, with a few minor innovations.[Sources: Metzger 1804, 59-60; Hamberger 1811, 15:119; 1823, 19:279; Hartung 1825, 166; Neuer Nekrolog, 20:1073; APB; Gause 1996, ii.343, 491] [last update: 13 Feb 2009]

Select Publications:

Naturrecht (Königsberg, 1803).[1]

[1] This book was reviewed in the Allgemeine Literatur-Zeitung, #212, cols. 196-98 (July 1803).

Reusch, Carl Daniel (1735-1806)[1]

1750 (Mar 24): Matriculation (Königsberg).

1763: Lecturer in Philosophy.*

1772: Full Prof. of Physics.*

1773-78: 2nd Librarian, University Library (replaced F. E. Jester).

1778: 1st Librarian, University Library (replaced F. S. Bock).

1780: Inspector of the Alumnat and the Collegium Albertinum.

Born in Königsberg on 28 April 1735 to the Altstadt pastor Christian Friedrich Reusch (20 Oct 1695-22 Feb 1742), and died in Königsberg on 28 August 1806. Reusch studied under Kant and was later a regular guest at his table, teaching physics alongside him since 1772 (both C. J. Kraus and K. G. Hagen were student participants at Reusch’s pro loco disputation on 24 September 1772 and both later returned to teach with him). He served for a time as the inspector to the Gröben Scholarship House, and as inspector of the Alumnat [glossary] he was given lodging in the Albertina. 

He had seven children, including: Carl Wilhelm Georg (3 Feb 1776 - 4 Dec 1813), who was the city physician and an associate professor of medicine at the university; Johann Theodor (b. 18 Aug 1783) who became a pharmacist; and Christian Friedrich (1778-1848)[bio], who attended Kant’s lectures in WS 1793-94 and later returned to Königsberg in 1800. [Letters: 93, 156, 197, 200, 217, 227, 241, 341, 342][Sources: Arnoldt 1777, 41; Goldbeck 1782, 84-5, 160; Metzger 1804, 64; Bartisius 1865] [last update: 18 Feb 2013]

[1] Oberhausen/Pozzo [1999] give Reusch’s death-year as 1805.

Rhoesa, Georg Friedrich (16??-1728)

1717 (Nov 11): Magister (Königsberg).

1718: Lecturer in Philosophy.*

Also: Röhsa. Born in Melau (Pr.), son of Jacob Röhsa. Does not appear in Oberhausen/Pozzo [1999]. [Sources: Arnoldt 1756, 184]

Richter, Andreas (1760?-1827)

[letters: 337, 883, 884]

Richter, Jeremias Benjamin (1762-1807)

He gave a pro receptione disputation on April 30, 1789, but there is no indication of him offering lectures at the university. In 1795 he moved to Silesia to work for the mines.

Rink, Friedrich Theodor (1770-1811)

1786 (Apr 1): Matriculation in Theology (Königsberg).

1789 (March): Magister (Königsberg); he leaves Königsberg.

1792/93: Lecturer in Theology, Oriental Languages, and Greek (Königsberg).

1794: Assoc. Prof. of Oriental Languages.

1800: 5th Full Prof. of Theology.

1801: Doctor of Theology (Königsberg).

1801: Head Pastor of the Trinity Church (Danzig) and Director of the Danzig gymnasium.

Friedrich Theodor Rink (also: Rinck) was born on 8 Apr 1770 in Slave (Schlawe, in Pomerania), and died on 27 Apr 1811 in Danzig (now Gdansk).  He was the second son of the pastor Johannes Gottlieb Rink (1732-1773) and Gotthilf Christina Rink, neé Rau (1744-1770), the daughter of Joachim Justus Rau [bio], a Professor of Theology at Königsberg. His mother died shortly after his birth, and his father when he was three, which led him to live with his maternal grandmother in Königsberg. Once in school, he attended the Collegium Fridericianum, and then the university, matriculating when he was sixteen. While at the university he attended Kant’s lectures,[1] but was also closely affiliated with J. G. Hasse [bio]. After three years he graduated with his Magister and habilitated, but then left Königsberg for a trip through parts of Germany and then Holland, where he studied philology at Leiden with Kant’s schoolfriend David Ruhnken and Arabic with Albert Schulten.[2]

Rink returned to Königsberg in 1792 as a lecturer,[3] later becoming an associate professor of Oriental Languages (1794) and then Full Professor of Theology (1800); he was also a frequent table guest of Kant’s (1792-93,[4] 1795-1801), also serving as inspector of the Kypke scholarship house. 

Rink left Königsberg for Danzig in the summer of 1801, taking with him various Kantiana, including various sets of lecture notes — an-Rink 1 and 2 (geography) and an-Rink 3 (pedagogy), and an-Pölitz 2 (theology) — and Kant’s copy of the 3rd edition of Baumgarten’s Metaphysica. Rink’s books were auctioned at his death. Rink edited Kant’s Physical Geography lectures (1802)[writings], Education lectures (1803)[writings], and his Progress of Metaphysics (1804)[writings], and also wrote one of the early biographies of Kant [Rink 1805]. [Sources: Metzger 1804, 54; Recke/Napiersky 1831, 3:550; ADB] [Letters: 837, 840a, 841, 890a, 893, 894b, 894c, 895,++] [last update: 24 Mar 2011]

Select Publications:

Mancherley zur Geschichte der metacritischen Invasion: nebst einem Fragment einer ältern Metacritik von Johann George Hamann, genannt der Magus in Norden, und einigen Aufsätzen, die Kantische Philosophie betreffend (Königsberg: Friedrich Nicolovius, 1800), xxii, 256 pp.

Tiberius Hemsterhuys und David Ruhnken. Biographischer Abriss ihres Lebens. Für Freunde der Humanität und des Studiums der Alten insbesondere (Königsberg, 1801)

Ansichten aus Immanuel Kant’s Leben (Könïgsberg: Göbbels und Unzer, 1805). Reprint: Bruxelles, Aetas Kantiana, 1968.

[1] Our only evidence for this comes from Rink himself [1805, 120]: “I was his student from 1786 until 1789. After returning from my travels to Holland and Germany, I was his dinner guest, usually twice per week, in the years 1792 and 1793, as I also was after my return from Curland, from 1795 to 1801.”

[2] To non-Kantians, Rink seems to have been best known for his collecting and research of Arabic writings — the ADB entry does not mention Kant, and it also gives Rink’s death-year as 1821, which appears to stem from a misprint when moving between the 2nd and 3rd editions of Georg Benedict Winer, Handbuch der theologischen Literatur (Leipzig: Carl Heinrich Reklam). The 2nd edition (1826, p. 414) gives 1811, while the 3rd edition (1840, vol. 2, p. 734) gives 1821 as the death-year. ADB cites the 3rd edition.

[3] He is first listed in the Catalog for SS 1792; Arnoldt claims he began in WS 1792/93, lecturing on (1) the Gospel of Matthew and Paul’s Letter to Hebrews, (2) the Idylls of Bion and Moschus, (3) Genesis, and (4) Arabic and Ethiopian [1908-9, v.319] — these all appear under his name as philology courses in the catalog.

[4] Recke/Napiersky claim that Rink spent this year in Nogallen (in Courland; Latvian: Nogale) as a Hofmeister in the home of von Fircks, a former president of the Oberhofgericht, also marrying a woman from Courland, before returning to Königsberg at the end of 1794.

Rogall, Georg Friedrich (1701-1733)

1717 (Sep 28): Matriculation (Königsberg).

1722: Matriculation (Halle).

1723 (Jan 18): Magister (Halle).

1724 (Jun 24): AR (Königsberg).

1725 (Aug 30): Dr. of Theology (Königsberg).

1725: Full Prof. of Philosophy (until 1731) and Assoc. Prof. of Theology (Königsberg).

1727: Inspector of the Collegium Fridericianum.

1728: Director of the Polish Seminar; consistory advisor.

1728 (Sep 14): Adjunct Director of the Collegium Fridericianum.

1729: Director of the Collegium Fridericianum (replacing Lysius).

1731: Full Prof. of Theology (Königsberg).

1732: 3rd Full Prof. of Theology; pastor of the Cathedral and inspector of the Cathedral School.

Georg Friedrich Rogall was born (19 Apr 1701)[1] and died (6 Apr 1733) in Königsberg; he was the son of a merchant. During this brief life he vigorously promoted Pietism [glossary] in Königsberg, introduced various pedagogical reforms, and edited a popular hymnal.

Rogall attended the Altstadt gymnasium, entered the university in Königsberg as a theology student, then transferred to Frankfurt/Oder and then to Halle in 1722, where he studied under Christian Wolff [bio], also coming under the influence of August Hermann Francke [bio], who soon converted him to pietism. After receiving his magister at Halle (1723), he returned to Königsberg (1724) where he received a doctorate in theology the following year (1725), and with Francke’s help and by order of the pietist king, Friedrich Wilhelm I, a new full professorship of philosophy was created at the university in Königsberg for him. He was also made an associate professor in theology against the objections of the dean of the theology faculty, Johann Jakob Quandt [bio]. One of Rogall’s first actions was to push successfully for the expulsion in 1725 of Christian Gabriel Fischer [bio], one of the philosophy faculty’s most outspoken advocates of Christian Wolff’s philosophy.[2]

In 1727 Rogall was made inspector of the Collegium Fridericianum, then adjunct director (1728), and in 1729 he assumed the directorship[3] (from the the more liberal Heinrich Lysius [bio]), with instructions from the King to pattern the school after Franke’s orphanage at Halle. He also hired Daniel Salthenius [bio] as inspector, and together they developed free schools in Königsberg for the underprivileged. A longer biography of Rogall is also available. [Sources: Arnoldt 1746; Arnoldt 1756, 35; Arnoldt 1769, 12; Arnoldt 1777, 49; Pisanski 1790; Zippel 1898, 71-8; APB; ADB; Riedesel 1937; Gause 1996, ii.118-20, 151; Klemme 1994, 20-1] [last update: 30 Jan 2008]

Select Publications:

Kern alter und neuer Lieder: für das Königreich Preussen mit einem erwecklichen Spruche über einem jeden Liede und mit erbaulichen Gebeten, auch nöthigen Registern (Königsberg, 1731).

Brüderliche Erweckung an einige angehende Lehrer im Königreiche Preußen (Königsberg, 1731).

Dissertatio critico-exegetica de auctoritate et antiquitate interpunctionis in Novo Testamento (Königsberg, 1734).

[1] Arnoldt [1777, 49] gives 14 Apr 1701.

[2] Rogall was nonetheless not averse to Wolff's teachings or method as such. All of Rogall's philosophy lectures were on philology, except for in his first two years, and then he lectured from Wolff's textbooks.

[3] Rogall was still director in 1732 when an eight-year old Immanuel Kant enrolled, although it is often claimed that F. A. Schultz [bio] was the director at that time.

Rohde, Johann Jacob (1690-1727)

1712: Magister (Jena).

1715: 2nd inspector of the Alumnat (replacing Lilienthal).

1719: Conrector of the Gymnasium at Elbing.

1720: Full Prof. of Logic and Metaphysics.*

Born (Aug 24) and died (Jul 4) in Königsberg. [Sources: Arnoldt 1746, i.348, ii.386-7; Wotschke 1928, 37]

Sahme, Arnold Heinrich (1676-1734)

1700 (Apr 15): Magister; Lecturer in Philosophy (Königsberg).*

1708: Deacon in the Löbenicht Church.

1721: Consistory Advisor.

1726 (Jul 17): Member of the Berlin Academy of Sciences.

Also: Sahm. Arnold Heinrich Sahme was born (11 Jun 1676) and died (26 Apr 1734) in Königsberg. He suffered a strong in 1727, and so retired from his offices. [Sources: Arnoldt 1777, 65; APB; NDB]

Sahme, Christian (1663-1732)

1679: Matriculation (Königsberg).

168?: Magister (Jena).

1689: Returns to Königsberg; Lecturer in Philosophy.

1694: 2nd inspector of the Alumnat (replacing Georgi).

1701: Rector and professor of mathematics of the Johannisschule (Danzig).

1702: Returns to Königsberg to serve as Deacon at the Neuroßgarten Church.

1710 (Feb 27) [APB: 1709]: Doctor of Theology; Assoc. Prof. of Theology, and Deacon of the Alstadt Church.

1718: 4th Full Prof. of Theology (Königsberg).

1721: 3rd Full Prof. of Theology.

Christian Sahme was born (10 Jan 1663) and died (26 Jul 1732)[1] in Königsberg; he was the son of Jacob Sahme (Full Prof. of Greek, 1658-62). Attended the Cathedral School, then the Albertina where he studied philosophy and mathematics, continuing his studies in Kiel and Holland. A professor of theology, he also gave lectures on mathematics. A grandson was Jakob Friedrich Werner, later professor of history and poetry. [Sources: Arnoldt 1746, i.346; Arnoldt 1777, 41, 45; APB; NDB; Wotschke 1928, 27] [last update: 21 May 2007]

[1] Arnoldt [1777, 41] claims 28 July 1732.

Sahme, Reinhold Friedrich von (1682-1753)

1698: Matriculation (Königsberg).

1707: Dr. of Law (Gießen).

1710: Full Prof. of Law (Königsberg).

1736: 1st Full Prof. of Law.

1739: Raised to the nobility.

1744: First chancellor of the university.

Born and died in Königsberg. Professor of law, giving lectures on Prussian law. First chancellor of the Albertina (a position created in 1744 in honor of its 200 year anniversary). Flottwell put together a "Women’s Academy" in the manner of his mentor Gottsched, meeting in the house of Prof. Sahme to study literature and music. [Sources: Hagelgans 1737; Gause 1996, ii.138, 141; Lestition 1989; APB]

Salthenius, Daniel Lorenz (1701-1750)

1724: Arrived in Halle.

1728: Inspector of the Latin school of the orphanage (Halle).

1729 (Apr 30): Magister (Halle).

1729-32: PR; inspector of the Collegium Fridericianum, and Assoc. Prof. of Logic and Metaphysics* (Königsberg)

1731-50: Rector of the Cathedral School (replaced A. Columbus).

1732: Dr. of Theology; Assoc. Prof. of Theology (replacing A. Wolf)(Königsberg).

1734 (SS): 6th Full Prof. of Theology.

1745: 5th Full Prof. of Theology.

Born (Mar 16) in Marken (near Upsala, Sweden), died (Jan 29) in Königsberg. He was the son of a pastor. As a theology student in Uppsala, Salthenius was accused of being in league with the devil and condemned to death, which he escaped only through the help of some professors. Bornhak reports that this story became known in 1737, resulting in calls for his dismissal; a report of October 26 of that year decided in his favor.

Salthenius taught at the Pädagogio in Halle, and then served as the inspector of the Latin schools of the Halle orphanage. F. A. Schultz called him to Königsberg in 1729 to serve as inspector of the Collegium Fridericianum (replacing Wolff); he was also given the associate professorship of logic and metaphysics vacated by Teske, and offered courses in philosophy for five semesters (WS 1729/30 to WS 1731/32), after which he gave up this position (replaced by Martin Knutzen), having been promoted to Dr. of Theology and given a full professorship in that faculty. A learned man, Salthenius was a gifted padagogue and school administrator, and he possessed the largest private library at the time — some 22,000 volumes — in all of Prussia. A longer biography of Salthenius is also available. [Sources: Hagelgans 1737; Arnoldt 1746, ii.191, 193, 219-20; Goldbeck 1782, 176-8, 210; Pisanski 1886, 475, 529; Bornhak 1900, 117; Klemme 1994, 4n; APB]

Sanden, Bernhard von, Jr. (1666-1721)

1686 (Jan 27): Magister (Leipzig).

1693: Lecturer in Theology (Königsberg).

1695: Assoc. Prof. of Theology

1696: Dr. of Theology.

1699: 4th Full Prof. of Theology.

1703: 3rd Full Prof. of Theology; Pastor (Löbenicht).

1708: Pastor (Kneiphof).

1709: 1st court-chaplain and 1st Full Prof. of Theology.

Bernhard von Sanden, Jr., was born (4 May 1666) and died (22 Jan 1721) in Königsberg; he was the son of Bernard von Sanden, Sr., Professor of Theology (see below), and himself a pastor and professor of theology. After receiving his magister degree, he traveled through Germany, Italy (where he was accepted into the Society of the Recuperatorum in Padua in 1689), Holland, and England [Sources: Arnoldt 1746, ii.184, 188, 210; Arnoldt 1777, 10; Pisanski 1886, 3320, 513; Gause 1996, ii.4] [last update: 21 May 2007]

Sanden, Bernhard von, Sr. (1636-1703)

1659 (Apr 17): Magister (Königsberg).

1664: Assistant Deacon at the Löbenicht Church (Königsberg).

1667: Deacon (Altstadt).

1674: Assoc. Prof. of Theology [Arnoldt, ii.206]

1675 (Jul 18): Doctor of Theology (Königsberg).

1679: Pastor (Altstadt).

1687: 2nd Full Prof. of Theology.

1688: 1st court chaplain; 1st Full Prof. of Theology.

1690: Supervisor of all churches in Prussia.

1701: Bishop.

Born (Oct 4) in Insterburg (Prussia), died (Apr 19) in Königsberg. A Lutheran theologian, professor of theology, and bishop. After receiving his magister degree, he traveled in Holland, France, and England for five years, returning to Königsberg in 1664. All three of his sons were promoted to doctor on the same day in 1696 (July 10), each in one of the higher faculties: Bernard Jr. in theology, Johann Friedrich in law, and Heinrich in medicine. [Sources: Arnoldt 1746, ii.165-6, 206, 467; Arnoldt 1777, 34, 40; Jöcher; Gause 1996, ii.4]

Sanden, Christian Bernhard von (1707-1756)

1722: Matriculation (Königsberg).

1728: Began study of medicine at Königsberg.

1741 (Oct 4): Dr. of Medicine (Halle).

1741: Returned to Königsberg.

1744 (Sep 4): Magister (Königsberg).

1756: Lecturer in Philosophy.*

Born (Jan 16) and died (Sep 16 or 17) in Königsberg. He was the son of Heinrich von Sanden, a prominent Professor of Medicine (see below). Little is known of his activities; although he received his doctorate in medicine before returning to Königsberg, it does not appear that he ever taught in the medical faculty. Instead, he pursued a magister degree, which would allow him to teach in the philosophy faculty. [Sources: Arnoldt 1746, ii.433, 472; 1769, 119-20; Pisanski 1886, 615, 695; Meusel 1812, 12:34; APB]

Select Publications:

De algebrae in physica utilitate (Königsberg, 1733).

Meditationes de legibus, quas corpora descendentia observant (Königsberg, 1756).

Sanden, Heinrich von (1672-1728)

1681: Matriculation (Königsberg).

1689: AR.

1696 (Jul 10): Dr. Medicine (Königsberg).

1697: Assoc. Prof. of Medicine.

1704 (Sep 18): Full Prof. of Physics; Magister (Königsberg).*

1713 (Feb 1): Member of the Berlin Academy of Sciences.

1714: Adjunct, Medical Faculty; city physician to Kneiphof.

Born (Jul 28) and died (Aug 10) in Königsberg; the son of Bernhard von Sanden, Sr. (see above). (APB reports his death-year as 1729.) After his studies in Königsberg, he traveled to Copenhagen and Leyden, then returned and was promoted to Dr. of Medicine. He worked as a physician and associate professor of medicine (1697-1728), later becoming also the full professor of physics, becoming one of the first in Prussia to concern himself with experimental physics. In 1705 he married Johanna Feyerabend, a daughter of the mayor of Kneiphof (one of the three cities consolidated in 1724 to comprise Königsberg); from this marriage came one daughter and two sons: Christian Bernhard and Johann Heinrich, both professors of medicine at Königsberg. In matters of medicine, Sanden was a Cartesian. He joined the Academy of Sciences in 1713. His large collection of natural objects was inherited by Adolf Saturgus (1685-1739). He served twelve times as dean, and died as rector. A longer biography of Sanden is also available. [Sources: Arnoldt 1746, ii.331, 395; Buck 1764, 140-44; Jöcher; Pisanski 1886, 369; APB; ADB] [last update: 5 Feb 2009]

Sanden, Johann Friedrich von (1670-1725)

1696: Dr. Law (Königsberg).

1697: Assoc. Prof. of Law.

Born (Aug 15) and died (Oct 26) in Königsberg; the son of Bernard von Sanden, Sr. (see above).

Sanden, Johann Heinrich von (1709-59)

1723: Matriculation (Königsberg).

1734: Dr. of Medicine (Halle).

1737/38 (WS)-1739 (SS): Assoc. Prof. of Medicine.

1739: Left the university to practice medicine in Elbing.

1747/48 (WS)-1759/60 (WS): Full Prof. of Pathology (Königsberg).

Born (Oct 15) and died in Königsberg; the son of Heinrich von Sanden, Professor of Medicine (see above). [Sources: Arnoldt 1746, ii.336; Pisanski 1886, 614; APB]

Sartorius, Johann (1639?-1710?)

1667-72: Rector in Lötzen.

1672: Pastor in Ridseven (Pr.).

1701: Magister (Jena).

1701: Lecturer in Philosophy.

At the age of 62 went to Jena, received his magister degree, and returned to Königsberg where he was received into the philosophy faculty (disputing on “de mistura linguarum”. Died in 1710 in Ridseven (According to Arnoldt, he died in 1718.) [Sources: Arnoldt 1756, 188; Pisanski 1886, 643]

Schaermacher, Johann Daniel (17??-17??)

1723 (Apr 2): Magister (Königsberg).

1724: Lecturer in Philosophy.*

Also: Schärmacher. Born in Königsberg, and studied at the university. F. S. Bock [bio] lodged with him in the early 1730s while studying at the university, but Arnoldt reports that he “soon left his homeland, and nothing reliable has been heard of him since.” Not listed in the Oberhausen/Pozzo [1999]. [Sources: Arnoldt 1769, 139; Wotschke 1929/30, 25]

Schaewen, Friedrich von (16??-1762)

1721: Lecturer in Philosophy; 2nd inspector of the Alumnat (replacing Boltz).

1737: Pastor in Lochstädt and Altpillau.

From Holland (Pr.). Not listed in Oberhausen/Pozzo [1999]. [Sources: Arnoldt 1746, i.348]

Schlegel, Gottlieb (1739-1810)

1755 (Mar 20): Matriculation (Königsberg).

1758-63: Taught at the Collegium Fridericianum.

1763: Magister; Lecturer in Philosophy (Königsberg).*

1765-80: Rector of the Cathedral School (Riga), replacing J. G. Lindner.

1777: Dr. of Theology (Erlangen); after which he served as pastor at the Cathedral in Riga.

1790: 1st Full Prof. of Theology (Greifswald) & Generalsuperintendent of Swedish Pomerania.

Born (16 Feb 1739) in Königsberg and died (27 May 1810) in Greifswald. Studied at the Collegium Fridericianum, then the Albertina. He also taught at the Collegium Fridericianum while teaching at the university, until moving to Riga in 1765, where he worked with his assistant, Johann Herder, who also had recently left the university (as a student) to teach at Riga. He left in 1771 for travels through Germany. Goldbeck lists thirty-six publications (or groups of publications). A painting of Schlegel may be viewed in the St. Nikolai Church in Greifswald. [Sources: Goldbeck 1781, 190-91; Goldbeck 1783, 175-79; APB; ADB][Letter: 708] [last update: 7 Feb 2008]

Select Publications:

Grundlage der Dogmatik (1806).

Schmalz, Theodor Anton Heinrich (1760-1831)

1777-80: Studied Theology and Law (Göttingen).

1785: Lecturer (Göttingen).

1787: Dr. of Law; Prof. of Law (Rinteln).

1789-1802: 3rd Full Prof. of Law (Königsberg).[1]

1798: Consistory Advisor.

1801: 1st Ful Prof. of Law; Chancellor of the University (Königsberg).

1803: Full Prof. of Law at Halle.

1810: Full Prof. of Law at the new university in Berlin, and its first rector.

Born in Hannover, died in Berlin. Lectured on German Constitutional Law when Heinrich Ludwig Adolph Graf von Dohna-Wundlacken (1777-1834) was a student at Königsberg (early 1790s). Wrote a Kantian textbook on natural law. Politically, Schmalz was a strong supporter of the monarchy (an “arch-royalist,” according to Kant); economically, he was called “the last of the Physiocrats.” [Sources: Abegg 1976, 179-80; Metzger 1804, 54-55; Hartung 1825, 267; APB; ADB (31:624)] [last update: 28 Oct 2013]

Select Publications:

Das reine Naturrecht (Königsberg 1792).

Encyclopädie der Cameralwissenschaften. Zum Gebrauch academischer Vorlesungen (Königsberg: F. Nicolovius, 1797), xii, 228 pp.

[1] Richter [1974, 60] claims Schmaltz was Full Prof. of Law beginning Easter 1788; but his courses are first listed in the lecture catalog of SS 1789.

Schoeneich, Christian (16??-17??)

1724: Called to Berlin, then Halle, as field chaplain.

Christian Schoeneich was presumably a lecturer in philosophy at Königsberg, and deacon in the Altstadt church. Arnoldt [1777] shows no one by this name in his list of deacons for the Altstadt church, but does list a M. Christoph Schöneich, born (18 Mar 1696) and died (14 Apr 1762) in Königsberg, received his Magister at Jena (15 Jun 1720), was a Field Chaplain near Berlin (1724), pastor at Darkehmen, who then returned to Königsberg as deacon at the Kneiphof church (the Cathedral). These would seem to be the same person. [Sources: Arnoldt 1777, 54, 86; Wotschke 1928, 15] [last update: 21 May 2007]

Schreiber, Michael (1662-1717)

1679: Matriculation (Königsberg).

1690 (Nov 18): Magister (Jena).

1690: Full Prof. of Rhetoric (replacing Jacob Reich).[1]

1694-17?: Librarian, Wallenrodt Library.

1701: Full Prof. of History* (replacing P. J. Hartmann).

1709: Pastor at the Cathedral church.

1710 (Feb 27): Dr. of Theology; Full Prof. of Theology; Consistory Advisor (Königsberg).

Born (25 Sep 1662) and died (9 Oct 1717) in Königsberg. He gave up his position as professors of rhetoric and history in 1709/10, when he assumed a professorship of theology, as well as a pastorate at the Cathedral. He was a brother-in-law to the enemy of Pietism, Christian Masecovius [bio]. [Sources: Arnoldt 1746, ii.410-11; Arnoldt 1777, 49; APB; NDB; Gause 1996, ii.115]

[1] Arnoldt [1777, 49] gives 1691.

Schultz, Christoph (1660-1736)

1684 (Jan 29): Magister (Königsberg).

1694-1736: Deacon at Haberberg Church.

Born (Mar 21) and died (Nov 7) in Königsberg. [Sources: Arnoldt 1756, 192]

Schultz, Franz Albrecht (1692-1763)

1717-22: Hofmeister (Königsberg).

1723: Teacher at the Kadettenkorps (Berlin).

1724: Field chaplain.

1727: Superintendant in Rastenburg, then at Stolp (1729).

1731: Consistory advisor and pastor at the Altstadt Church (Königsberg).

1732 (Sep 9): Dr. of Theology, and 4th Full Prof. of Theology (replaced Abraham Wolff).[1]

1733: Director of the Collegium Fridericianum (replaced Rogall).

1737: Inspector of all schools and churches.

Also: Schulz. Franz Albrecht Schultz was born (25 Sep 1692) in Neustettin (Pomerania), where his father served as the mayor, and died (19 May 1763)[2] in Königsberg. Schultz was a Pietist theologian who studied philosophy and mathematics under both Wolff [3] and theology under the Pietist Francke at Halle. After working as a Hofmeister in Königsberg[4] and then teaching briefly in Berlin, followed by various ecclesiastical roles (military chaplain, church superintendent, Probst), he eventually arrived back in Königsberg in 1731, where he replaced Abraham Wolf [bio] as pastor of the Altstadt church and also served as a consistory advisor. He entered into the university matriculation records on 19 July 1732 when he was made a professor of theology, and the following year he also assumed the responsibilities of directing the Collegium Fridericianum, where Kant was a student (1732-40).[5]

Schultz embodied a blend of Rationalism and Pietism [glossary], and appears to have been responsible for reconciling these seemingly antagonistic positions at the university. Kant’s mother was his devoted admirer, as was Kant himself to a degree, attending Schultz’s lectures with his friends Heilsberg and Wlömer while at the university.[6] Schultz served as rector of the university eight times. He was quite influential in church matters, and eventually controlled entry into all the church offices of Prussia, although his influence waned appreciably with the death of Friedrich Wilhelm I. [Sources: Arnoldt 1777, 35; Hagelgans 1737; Zedlitz vol 35, cols. 1606-9; Hollack/Tromnau 1899, 246-61; APB; ADB; Klemme 1994, 21-6] [last update: 18 Aug 2014]

[1] According to Klemme, Schultz was appointed by the King as 1st Professor of Theology in 1932, but to avoid conflict in the faculty he assumed the 3rd Professorship in most matters, and in the Academic Senate (to which the two senior theology professors belong) he served as the 2nd Professor.

[2] The Academy edition gives his death-year as 1762; ADB claims 1763, and Arnoldt [1777, 35] gives 19 May 1763.

[3] According to Professor Wald, “Christian Wolff himself is supposed to have often said that if anyone has ever understood him, it is Schultz in Königsberg” (Reicke 1860, 6; repeated in Vorländer 1924, 24 and Selle 1956, 144).

[4] Schultz accompanied two brothers — sons of Baron von Münchau — to the university at Königsberg [Zedlitz].

[5] It is often claimed that Schultz was the director when Kant matriculated (at the end of September 1732), but Rogall was still the director at that time. There is every reason to believe the early report, however, that Schulz was instrumental in getting young Kant enrolled into the Collegium.

[6] See Heilsberg’s account [in Reicke 1860, 50] and also Wasianski [1804, 88]. Schultz was the consistory advisor and pastor at the Altstadt Church, which managed the German school that Kant was attending; it was in this capacity that he came to know of the promishing student and managed his transfer to the Collegium Fridericianum. It was perhaps also this connection that led Kant’s mother to attend Schultz’ bible study classes, to which she brought her older children, and that also led to Schultz’s occasional visits to the Kant home [Vorländer 1924, i.20-21]. Borowski [1804, 152] claims that Kant had hoped to erect a monument in Schultz’ honor, and refers [in Reicke 1860, 31] to Schultz as one of Kant’s valued teachers at the Collegium Fridericianum, alongside Kant’s Latin teacher, Johann Friedrich Heydenreich.

Schultz, George (1676-1738)

1700 (Apr 15): Magister (Königsberg).

1700: Lecturer in Philosophy.*

1736: Full Prof. of Law.

Also: Schultze. Listed in Oberhausen/Pozzo [1999] beginning SS 1720, so he was a professor at least by then. [Sources: Hagelgans 1737; Arnoldt 1746, ii.432]

Schultz, Johann (Friedrich) (1739-1805)

1756 (Sep 24): Matriculation in Königsberg, studying theology and mathematics.

17??-66: Hofmeister.

1766-69: Pastor in Starkenberg.

1769-75: Pastor in Löwenhagen.

1775: Deacon at the Altroßgarten Church (Königsberg).

1775 (Jul 6): Magister (Königsberg).

1775 (Aug 2): Habilitation (with a disputation on acoustics)(Königsberg).

1776: 2nd court chaplain at the Castle Church (replacing J. A. Starck) (Königsberg).

1787: Full Prof. of Mathematics (replacing Buck)(Königsberg).

Also: Johann Friedrich Schulz/Schulze. Johann Schultz was born (11 Jun 1739) in Mühlhausen and died (27 Jun 1805) in Königsberg, where he was a professor of mathematics at the university and the second Hofprediger, or court chaplain. Apart from some original work in mathematics, he is known as Kant’s earliest and (according to Kant) his best expositer.

Schultz attended the Collegium Fridericianum in Königsberg, then the university (1756-??) — although without ever studying with Kant[1] — worked as a Hofmeister in the area, then served two pastoral stints in outlying towns before returning to Königsberg as a deacon at the Altroßgarten church (1775) and then as the 2nd court chaplain of the castle church (1776), a post he retained until his death. He also received his Magister at the university, habilitated, and began lecturing with the WS 1775/76, almost exclusively on mathematics and astronomy.[2].

His wife, Johanna Eleonore Schultz (1751-95), was the daughter of anatomy professor Christoph Büttner [bio].

Schultz was a friend of Kant’s, who considered him the best expositor of the Critique of Pure Reason (see his 1784 and 1789). Kant was university rector when the academic senate recommended Schultz’s appointment as professor of mathematics to the government (11 August 1786). Kant called him “the best mind for philosophy that I know in this region” (Letter to Herz, AA 10:133) and Metzger claimed he was “one of the greatest mathematicians alive” and a man of fine character. Kant also turned to him for his mathematical expertise. There are sixteen letters between Kant and Schultz — 13 from Kant — most from between August 1781 and November 1791). A longer biography of Schultz is also available.[Sources: Arnoldt 1777, 14; Metzger 1804, 65-6; APB; NDB; Goldbeck 1782, 89; Theis 2002] [last update: 28 May 2007]

Select Publications:

Erläuterungen über des Herr Immanuel Kants Critik der reinen Vernunft (Königsberg, 1784).

Prüfung der Kantische Kritik der reinen Vernunft, two parts (1789, 1792).

Anfangsgründe der reinen Mathesis (Königsberg, 1790).

Kurzer Lehrbegriff der Mathematik (Königsberg, 1797).

[1] Ludwig Borowski [bio], who was also studying at the university at this time, claimed that Schultz was one of Kant's best students, and this claim is often repeated in the literature. Other informants from the period, like Wannowski [bio], are uncertain. Schultz himself, however, is quite clear on this point, and there is no reason why he would dissemble. When asked whether he ever attended any of Kant’s lectures, Schultz replied: “Never, except for a single hour as a visitor [Hospes] in physical geography.” [Reicke 1860, 42]

[2] It is suggested in Kuehn [2001, 498n116] that Schultz also lectured on Kant’s Religion within the Bounds of Unaided Reason during SS 1795 and 1795/96. These lectures were announced for Johann Ernst Schulz (the theology professor), however, not the mathematics professor — and in any event, the lectures for the second semester would likely have been cancelled, given the government prohibition to lecture on Kant’s book (sent to the Academic Senate from Berlin, dated 14 October 1795).

Schulz, Johann Ernst (1742-1806)

1759: Matriculates at the university (Königsberg).

1767: Teacher at the Orphanage (Königsberg).

1771: Pastor at the Orphanage (Königsberg).

1778: 1st court chaplain; Dr. of Theology; Full Prof. of Theology (Königsberg).

1798: 1st Prof. of Theology (Königsberg).

Also: Schultz. Johann Ernst Schulz was born (25 Dec 1742)[1] in Freysee (near Garnsee), and died (9 Apr 1806) in Königsberg, where he was a professor of theology, 1st court chaplain (Ober-Hofprediger), a consistory advisor, the General Superintendant of East Prussian schools, and the director of the Collegium Fridericianum. He came to Königsberg when he was ten and studied at the Altstadt gymnasium (under Daubler and Pisanski), and after entering the university in 1759, began a seven-year stint as tutor for the son of Dr. Lilienthal [bio] in 1760. His courses at the university were announced in the Catalog beginning WS 1778/79. In a notice of May 1, 1783, he was listed as 2nd Professor of Theology (T. C. Lilienthal, 1st professor of theology, would have died in March 1781, allowing Reccard and Schulz to each move up one position). Schultz announced lectures on Kant’s Religion within the Bounds of Unaided Reason for SS 1795 and WS 1795/96, although we should assume the lectures for the second semester did not take place, since the government in Berlin had recently prohibited all lectures on Kant’s book (edict sent to the Academic Senate and dated 14 October 1795).

Ober-Hofprediger Johann Ernst Schulz is often confused in the literature with Hofprediger Johann Schulz, who was otherwise professor of mathematics. The family name of each often appears both as ‘Schulz’ and as ‘Schultz’. Both were chaplains at the castle church, both lived in the Bischofshofe, by the Cathedral (as listed in the 1784 Address-Calender), both were married and interacted with Kant socially, although Johann rather more than Johann Ernst (see Vorländer [1924, ii.34n]). Because J. E. Schulz taught in the theology faculty, he possessed a doctorate, and therefore is occasionally designated with a ‘D.’, while J. Schulz the mathematician is designated as a Magister (‘M.’). Döring offers a brief bibliography. [Sources: Arnoldt 1777, 29; Metzger 1804, 57; Hartung 1825, 267; Rhesa 1834, 1; Döring 1835, 4:74-75] [last update: 3 Mar 2013]

[1] Arnoldt [1777, 29] gives 25 Dec 1743, Rhesa [1834, 1] and Döring [1835, 4:74] give 20 Dec 1743.

Schulz, Johann Ludwig (1771-1811)

1795: Lecturer in Philosophy.*

1801: Moves to Danzig.

Schuster, Gottfried (172?-????)

1744: Prorector (Rastenburg).

1746: Teaching at the Cathedral School (Königsberg).

1748 (Aug 26): Magister (Königsberg).

1748: Rector (Marienburg).

1752: Rector (Tilsit).

(Also: Schusterus) Born in Elbing. Wrote various poems and an essay on grasshoppers; he also contributed to J. S. Bock’s various moral weeklies: Der Einsiedler (1741-42), Deutsche Aesop (1742-43), and Der Pilgrim (1742-44). No evidence that he ever taught at the university. [Sources: Arnoldt 1769, 150-51; Pisanski 1886, 481; Rehberg 1942, 67]

Select Publication:

Von den Insecten, besonders von den Heuschrecken (Königsberg, 1750).

Schwenckenbecher, Christian (168?-1728)

1699 (Oct 1): Matriculation (Königsberg).

1707 (Feb 10): Magister (Leipzig).

17??: Lecturer in Philosophy.

1711: Rector in Tilsit.

Born in Königsberg. [Sources: Arnoldt 1756, 192; APB]

Seeland, Georg Christian (173?-17??)

1762 (Mar 20): Magister (Halle).

1764: Lecturer in Philosophy.* (PR: 5/12)

From Coburg. He studied at Halle under Meier. Not listed in the Oberhausen/Pozzo [1999], so he must have stopped lecturing before WS 1770/71, although Emil Arnoldt reports him as still lecturing in history in SS 1767 (1908-9, v.213). [Sources: Arnoldt 1769, 151]

Segers, Johann Ernst (1675-1719)

1690 (Mar 2): Matriculation (Königsberg).

1694 (Sep 12): Magister (Jena).

1695 (Nov 14): AR (Königsberg).

1701: Lecturer in Philosophy; 2nd inspector of the Alumnat (replacing Sahme).

1703 (Apr 2): Member of the Berlin Academy of Sciences.

1703-16: Full Prof. of Greek.

1710 (Feb 27): Dr. of Theology; Assoc. Prof. of Theology.

1716: Retired from Full Prof. of Greek; pastor in the Haberberg church.

1719: Pastor in the Altstadt church.

Born (Jan 2) and died (Sep 3) in Königsberg. Studied at the Albertina, Leipzig, Jena, Halle, Altdorf; after receiving his magister degree, traveled through Holland and Germany, returning in 1695. [Sources: Arnoldt 1746, i.346; ii.215, 371; Jöcher; Pisanski 1886, 565]

Segers, Johann Georg (1705-1760)

1728 (Oct 25): Magister (Halle).

1729: Lecturer in Philosophy.*

1731: Pastor at Schippenbeil.

Born (Nov 15) in Königsberg, died (Nov 24) in Schippenbeil; the son of Johann Ernst Segers (see above). APB (ii.662) lists a Simon Segers (1706-60) as a son of J. E. Segers and as a pastor in Schippenbeil. [Sources: Arnoldt 1769, 123]

Seuberlich, Friedrich (16??-1728)

1696 (Apr 26): Magister (Königsberg).

1704: Superintendant in Rastenburg.

Born in Königsberg. Lecturer in Philosophy. [Sources: Arnoldt 1756, 194; 1777, 258]

Stadtlender, Friedrich (16??-1727)

1708: 2nd Inspector of the Alumnat (replacing Masecovius).

1711: Superintendent of Salfeld.

1712: Deacon at the Altstadt Church.

Died (Oct 28) in Königsberg. [Sources: Arnoldt 1746, i.347; 1777, 41]

Starck, Johann August (1741-1816)

1761: Begins his university studies at Göttingen.

1763 (Aug 9): Arrives in St. Petersburg and meets with Büsching.

1763-65: Moves to St. Petersburg to teach at the Petrina Academy.

1765: Travels to Paris; works at the Royal Library.

1766: Magister awarded in absentia (Göttingen).

1766-68: Assist. Rector at the Gymnasium in Wismar.

1768: Travels to St. Petersburg

1769 (Sep 28): Arrives in Königsberg.

1770-73: Assoc. Prof. of Oriental Languages*[1]

1770 (Sep 21): 2nd Court Chaplain.

1772: 4th Full Prof. of Theology (Königsberg).[2]

1773 (Oct 28): Doctorate in Theology (Königsberg).[3]

1776-77: 3rd Full Prof. of Theology.

1776: 1st court chaplain (Feb 17) and General Superintendant of East Prussia (Jul 8).

1777 (March): Professor at the Academy in Mitau.

1781: General Superintendant in Gießen und Darmstadt.

Johann August Starck was born (28 Oct 1741) in Schwerin (Mecklenburg), died (3 March 1816) in Darmstadt. Studied theology and oriental languages in Göttingen. Taught at St. Petersburg, made a trip through England, then worked with oriental manuscripts in Paris. He received his magister degree from Göttingen, worked for a while as a rector at a gymnasium in Wismar, returned to St. Petersburg, then to Königsberg, where he received professorships in oriental languages and then theology. It appears that Starck never held a public disputation on arriving at the university, despite the requirement to do so. In 1774 he married the youngest daughter of the late Franz Albrecht Schultz [bio]. His theology and his freemasonry led to unpopularity with many colleagues and students, and he eventually left for Mitau, and then for Darmstadt. Wood and Di Giovanni [1996, xv] suggest that around 1780 the future king (Frederick William) came under the influence of his anti-rational religious revivalism. A longer biography of Starck is also available.[Sources: Pisanski 1886; Arnoldt 1777, 10-11, 14; Strieder 1806, 225-37; Döring 1835, 4:300-4; APB; ADB; Konschel 1912; Gause 1996, ii.246; Epstein 1966, 506-17] [last update: 21 May 2007]

Select Publications:

Apologie des Ordens der Freymaurer / Von dem Bruder **** Mitgliede der ** Schottischen Loge zu P.*. Freimaurer [Anon.] (Königsberg, 1770; fully revised 2nd edn, Berlin, 1778).

Dissertatio inauguralis de usu antiquarum versionum Scripturae Sacrae interpretationis subsidio (Königsberg, 1773).

De tralatitiis et gentilismo in religionem christianam liber singularis (Königsberg, 1774).

Hephästion (Königsberg, 1775; 2nd edn, 1776). 

Geschichte der christlichen Kirche des ersten Jahrhunderts, 3 vols. (Berlin and Leipzig, 1779-80).

Freymüthige Betrachtungen über das Christenthum [Anon.] (Berlin, 1780; much expanded 2nd edn, 1782).

Ueber den Zweck und Nutzen des Freymaurerordens [Anon.] (Berlin, 1781).

Versuch einer Geschichte des Arianismus, 2 vols (Berlin, 1783-85).

Saint Nicaise, oder eine Sammlung merkwürdiger maurerischer Briefe, für Freymaurer und die es nicht sind [Anon.] (Frankfurt/Main, 1785).

Ueber Krypto-Katholicismus, Proselytenmacherey, Jesuitismus, geheime Gesellschaften und besonders die ihm selbst von den Verfassern der Berliner Monatsschrift gemachte Beschuldigungen, mit Acten-Stücken belegt, 2 vols. (Frankfurt/Main and Leipzig, 1787).

Der Triumph der Philosophie im achtzehnten Jahrhunderte, 2 vols. [Anon.] (Frankfurt/Main, 1803).

Theoduls Gastmahl, oder über die Vereinigung der verschiedenen christlichen Religions Societäten [Anon.] (Frankfurt/Main, 1809; 2nd edn, 1811; 3rd edn, 1813; 4th edn, 1815; 5th edn, 1817).

[1] Starck was entered in the Matrikel on 2 January 1770, as a Magister from Göttingen; course offerings ran from SS 1770 through SS 1773. APB claims he began his appointment in 1769.

[2] Arnoldt [1777, 14] claims he first became a full professor in 1774.

[3] A letter from Starck’s mentor A. F. Busching [bio] to G. F. Müller and dated 29 December 1770 describes Stark as having already received his doctorate in theology (as well as being a professor of philosophy and the adjunct court-chaplain). In an earlier letter to Müller (dated 12 September 1766), Büsching wrote that “Stark is back from Paris and now the conrector at the gymnasium in Wismar. I recently had him awarded a Magister at Göttingen. He is capable of higher things.”

Strimesius, Johann Samuel (1684-1744)

1710-35: Full Prof. of Rhetoric and History.

1735: Forced to retire.

Born (26 Jul 1684) and died (27 Dec 1744) in Frankfurt/Oder; he was the son of Samuel Strimesius (1648-1730), a theologian at Frankfurt [bio]. Strimesius apparently adopted the novel practice of calling himself a “Doctor of Philosophy” (rather than the traditional “Magister”), which led to a censure (19 April 1712) by von Printz, the Minister of Education in Berlin (Bornhak 1900, 89). He was also the first member of the Reformed Church to serve as rector at the University (in 1722). Strimesius was eventually forced to retire because his use of alcohol interfered with his professorial duties. [Sources: Arnoldt 1746, ii.411; Jöcher; APB; Wotschke 1928, 45; Wotschke 1929/30, 94f., 97f.]

Stuermer, Reinhold (1677-1708)

1700 (Apr 15) Magister (Königsberg).

1704: Deacon in the Cathedral Church.

Born (Dec 3) and died (Jan 31) in Königsberg. Lecturer in Philosophy. [Sources: Arnoldt 1756, 196; Wotschke 1928, 56]

Suchland, Adam Ludwig (1715-????)

1739 (Feb 3): Doctor of Medicine (Königsberg).

1740: Assoc. Prof. of Medicine (Königsberg).

1752: Emigrates to Poland.

Born (Mar 25) in Heiligenwald (Samland). He emigrated to Poland in 1752 to practice medicine in Wilda. [Sources: Arnoldt 1746, ii.336; Arnoldt 1756, 59; Pisanski 1886, 615, 708]

Select Publications:

De extravasationibus in corpore humano

De motu scientifico medici rationalis principio

Suchland, Johann Bernhard (1709-1772)

c.1730: Magister (Kiel).

1732: Lecturer in Philosophy.*

1742: Pastor in Creutz

1752: Deacon in Tilsit.

1759: Pastor and superintendent (Tilsit).

Born (Jun 3) in Heiligenwald (Samland), died (Jan 15) in Tilsit. [Sources: Arnoldt 1769, 152; 1777, 7, 139]

Suchland, Johann Kaspar (170?-1734)

1723 (Apr 2): Magister; Lecturer in Philosophy (Königsberg).*

1731: designated as an Assoc. Prof. of Logic and Metaphysics, but he never assumed the position.

1733-34: Garrison chaplain (Danzig).

Born in Heiligenwald, died in Göttingen. Arnoldt claims he had been designated as an Assoc. Prof. of Oriental Languages (1769, 126). [Sources: Pisanski 1886, 524; Wotschke 1928, 184]

Teske, Johann Gottfried (1704-1772)

1719 (Sep 30): Matriculation (Königsberg).

1726 (May 27): Magister (Halle).

1726 (Aug 10): AR; Lecturer in Philosophy.* (PR: 10/23)

1728-29: Assoc. Prof. of Logic und Metaphysics.*

1729: Full Prof. of Physics (replaced von Sanden).*

1733: Consistory Advisor for Samland.

1760: Honorary professor of the St. Petersburg Academy.

Also: Taeschke, Teschke. Born on 3 May 1704 and died 25 May 1772 in Königsberg. He taught both theoretical and experimental physics during Kant's student years, and he was the first in Königsberg to work with electricity. Kant’s magister dissertation (“On Fire”) was related to Teske’s interests, and one might view Teske as Kant’s academic mentor. Borowski claims that Kant revered Teske, although C. J. Kraus [bio] — a more reliable source — reports that Kant “had a low opinion of Teske and rightly so” [Reicke 1860, 7].

Teske died while serving as rector for SS 1772. Already in SS 1771 he was unable to teach his announced courses (viz. Theoretical Physics, Experimental Physics, and an Examinatorium). A longer biography of Teske is also available. [Sources: Arnoldt 1746, ii.396; Meusel 1815, 28-29; Pisanski 1886, 529; Reicke 1860, 7; Wotschke 1928, 71, 120, 133; Kuehn 2001, 78; APB]

That, Theodor Reinhold (1698-1735)

1722: Magister (Jena).

1723: Lecturer in Philosophy.*

1728: Conrector at the Löbenicht Church.

1729: Prorector at the Altstadt Church.

Born (May 18) in Dietrichsdorff, died (Jul 30) in Königsberg. Supported Wolff’s system. (Arnoldt gives birthdate as 5/14.) [Sources: Arnoldt 1756, 197; Pisanski 1886, 474-5, 525, 590]

Thegen, Georg (1651-1729)

1668: Matriculation (Königsberg).

1673: Moved to Greifswald.

1674: Magister (Rostock).

1677: Return to Königsberg.

1679: Full Prof. of Practical Philosophy.

Born and died in Königsberg of a merchant and part of a long line of Königsbergers. Attended the Altstadt School, then the University to study philosophy and mathematics. Studied theology at Greifswald and Rostock, before returning to Königsberg. He was an Aristotelian in practical philosophy, lecturing on geography, moral philosophy, and politics. Served fourteen times as dean, and five as rector. Listed in the Catalog through WS 1728/29, although Pisanski claims he finished in 1726. [Sources: Arnoldt 1746, ii.391-2; Pisanski 1886, 309, 522; APB]

Thiesen, Gottfried (1705-????)

1717 (Oct 13): Dr. Medicine (Leyden).

1730: Assoc. Prof. of Medicine (Königsberg).

1741: 5th Full Prof. of Medicine (Königsberg).

1748: 4th Full Prof. of Medicine (Königsberg).

1766: 3rd Full Prof. of Medicine (Königsberg).

Born (Jan 20) in Königsberg; the father of Johannes Thiesen (see below). Thiesen traveled in Germany, England, and Holland. He lectured in pharmacology, as well as offering a course on mineralogy and metallurgy (SS 70 and 71, and every WS from 70/71 to 75/76). Pisanski refers to him as a botanist. He had applied for the Full Prof. of Logic and Metaphysics in 1758 (along with Kant, Buck, and others). Last offered lectures in WS 1775/76. [Not to be confused with Gottfried Bernhard Thiessen, also a physician, mentioned at Arnoldt 1769, 153] [Sources: Hagelgans 1737; Arnoldt 1746, ii.320, 335; Arnoldt 1769, 41; Pisanski 1886, ix, 614]

Thiesen, Johannes (1736-1???)

1758 (Jan 23) Magister, Lecturer in Philosophy* (Königsberg).

1758 (Apr 20): Dr. of Medicine (Königsberg).

Born (May 11), the son of Gottfried Thiesen (see above). Goldbeck notes that Thiesen “has not been lecturing for years”. Arnoldt notes he was still teaching in SS 1767 [1908-9, v.213], and the Address-Calender for 1770 still lists him as a magistri legentes, as well as a practicing physician (and living on the Altsädtischen Marckt). Not listed in Oberhausen/Pozzo [1999], so he was not lecturing after 1770, nor was he ever an associate professor. [Sources: Arnoldt 1769, 153; Goldbeck 1782, 88]

Tilesius, Balthasar (1673-1735)

1717 (Nov 2): Dr. of Law (Königsberg), Assoc. Prof. of Law.

1723: 4th Full Prof. of Law.

1726: 2nd Full Prof. of Law.

1732: 1st Full Prof. of Law.

Bied (Dec 10). [Sources: Hagelgans 1737; Arnoldt 1746,ii.248, 254, 257, 468]

Vogel, David (1674-1736)

1690: Matriculation (Königsberg).

1698 (Jan 27): Magister (Leipzig).

1703: Lecturer in Philosophy (Königsberg).*

1712: Superintendant at Bartenstein.

1713: 2nd court chaplain (Königsberg).

1714: Assoc. Prof. of Theology.

1717 (Dec 16): Dr. of Theology, in absentia (Greifswald).

1735: Retired.

David Vogel was born (12 Sep 1674) and died (14 May 1736) in Königsberg. Attended the Roßgärten and Löbenicht schools, then the university to study theology. Although appointed associate professor of theology in 1714, he could not lecture without a doctorate, so he did not offer courses until 1718. [Sources: Arnoldt 1746, ii.218; Arnoldt 1777, 13; APB] [last update: 21 May 2007]

Wage, Stephan (1702-1754)

1730 (Jun 29): Dr. of Law (Königsberg).

1730/31 (WS): Assoc. Prof. of Law.

1745: 4th Full Prof. of Law.

1750: 3rd Full Prof. of Law.

1730-51: Prof. of Law.

Born (Mar 5) in Lötzen (Pr.), died (Sep 8) in Königsberg. Also: Waga. [Sources: Hagelgans 1737; Arnoldt 1746, ii.258, 278; 1756, 49; Pisanski 1886, 602]

Wald, Samuel Gottlieb (1762-1828)

1782: Matriculation (Halle).

1784: Magister (Leipzig).

1787: PR, Full Prof. of Greek (Königsberg).* [Hartung, Klemme: 1786]

1790: Inspector of the Coll. Fridericianum (replaced Reccard [Domsien?]).

1793: Full Prof. of Theology (while also remaining in the philosophy faculty).

1800: Church and school advisor.

1806: Full Prof. of Oriental Languages (Königsberg).

1821: 1st Prof. of Theology (Königsberg).

Born on 17 Oct 1762 in Breslau,[1] where his father was a merchant, and died 22 Feb 1828 in Königsberg.  He studied one year in Halle under Krause, Knapp, Semmler, and Nösselt, then transferred to Leipzig where he was awarded a masters degree.  Minister Zedlitz recommended him as the new professor of Greek at the university of Königsberg, filling a vacancy created by F. S. Bock’s death several years earlier, and Wald joined the faculty with WS 1787/88.

Minister Woellner named Wald as Director and Head Inspector of the Collegium Fridericianum (against the advice of the consistory)[2], and in the same edict required that a seminar for schoolteachers be formed at the Albertina, in conjunction with the Collegium Fridericianum; Wald taught this seminar from 1790-1800, modelled after a similar program at Halle. Wald was promoted to the theology faculty, but retained his professorship in philosophy as well. He also served as the Consistory Advisor for South Prussia. After Mangelsdorff’s death (1802), he assumed the history professorship, and also later the oriental languages professorship. Metzger [1804] notes that he was also the director of the Royal German Society. Although gifted, Wald was not thought to have been equal to holding so many chairs, and Selle attributes this accumulation to the poor faculty pay at Königsberg. By 1817, he is listed as 1st Professor of Theology and Full Prof. of Oriental Languages. Wald gave a memorial address on the first birthday after Kant’s death (23 April 1804)[3] and wrote a study on Kant’s relation to Sebastian Frank. [Sources: Metzger 1804, 66-67; Hartung 1825, 268-70; unsigned obituary in the Preussische Provinzial-Blätter (1829, 1: 66-69); Vorländer 1924, i.227; Gause 1996, ii.137, 268; Klemme 1994, 30; APB; NDB] [last update: 31 May 2007]

[1] In his diary entry for 30 August 1791, Fichte describes Wald as “a fat round Schlesien” [Lauth/Jacob 1962, 416].

[2] Schwarz [1915, 55].

[3] Reprinted, along with Wald’s notes and inquries, in Reicke [1860].

Walther, Christian (1677-1717)

1680: Pastor (Norkitten).

1681: Pastor at the Sackheim Church (Königsberg).

1702 (May): Dr. Theology in absentia (Frankfurt/Oder).

1703: Assoc. Prof. of Theology (Königsberg).

1704: Inspector of the Jewish Synagogue (Königsberg).

Christian Walther was a pastor and theology professor in Königsberg, where he died on 17 Jan 1717 (while serving as rector of the university). [Sources: Arnoldt 1777, 21] [last update: 21 May 2007]

Wannowski, Stephan (1749-1812)

1768 (Apr 19): matriculation (Frankfurt).

Also: Wannowsky. Born (Feb 20) in Ostaszyn (in Nowogrodeck), died (Jan 16) in Königsberg; the son of a reformed preacher. He attended the reformed gymnasium in Sluck, then in Berlin; studied theology at the university at Frankfurt/Oder (1768-71); served as a reformed preacher at the orphanage in Königsberg (1772); in 1779 until 1812 (Seibert’s successor) he also became the rector of the Burgschule. [Sources: Goldbeck 1782, 198-99; Gause 1996, ii.269]

Watson, Matthias Friedrich (1732-1805)[1]

1747 (Mar 25): Matriculation (Königsberg).

1753 (Oct 12): Matriculation (Frankfurt/Oder).

1753: Lecturer in Philosophy (Königsberg).* (PR: 7/25)

1756 (SS)-1758/59 (WS): Assoc. Prof. of Poetry (Königsberg).* (PL: 5/4)

1759: School rector (Mitau).

1775: Professor at Academia Petrina (Mitau).

Born in Königsberg, died in Mitau; of an English family living in Pomerania. Matters went poorly for him during the Russian occupation [glossary], so he took a job as rector of the city school in Mitau. Kant’s brother, Johann Heinrich, took over this rectorship in 1775 when the school was reformed as the Academia Petrina, and Watson assumed a professorship. See the letter from Hamann’s brother to Lindner (16 March 1757) in Hamann’s Schriften, ed. by Roth (Berlin, 1821-25), iii.11: “Magister Kant lives happy and content. He quietly recruits those attending the lectures of the clamorous Watson, and weakens with industry and true learning the apparent acclaim of this youth.” [Sources: APB; Pisanski 1886, 708; Gause 1996, ii.246]

[1] Oberhausen/Pozzo [1999] list his birth-year as 1733.

Weber, Jacob Michael (16??-1735)

1709 (Jun 28): Magister (Greifswald).

1711: Pastor (Lindenau).

1721: Pastor (Leuneburg).

Born in Wargen. [Sources: Arnoldt 1777, 217; Pisanski 1886, 563]

Weger, Lorenz (1653-1715)

1677: Magister (Leipzig).

1679: Full Prof. of Oriental Languages (Königsberg).

Also: Wegner. Born (Dec 30) and died (May 21) in Königsberg, of an important Königsberg family (his father was mayor of Altstadt, etc.). Studied in Königsberg and Leipzig; assumed a professorship in Königsberg after extensive travels in Holland and England. [Sources: Arnoldt 1746, ii.363; APB]

Wegner, Gottfried (1644-1709)

1666 (Sep 30): Magister (Königsberg).

1668: Rector (Neustadt-Eberswald).

1674, 1765: Deacon at the lower/higher church (Frankfurt/Oder).

1694 (Jul 12): Dr. of Theology (Halle).

1694: Assoc. Prof. of Theology, and 2nd court chaplain (Königsberg).

1697: 3rd Full Prof. of Theology (Königsberg).

1703: 2nd Full Prof. of Theology (Königsberg).

Gottfried Wegner was born (18 Mar 1644) in Oels (Schlesia), died (14 Jun 1709), from the plague, in Königsberg. Professor of Theology, and member of the Berlin Academy of Sciences (entered 9 May 1707). [Sources: Arnoldt 1777, 13; Rogge 1878, 523] [last update: 20 Jul 2010]

Wegner, Heinrich (16??-1734)

1713 (Apr 20): Magister (Königsberg); lecturer in philosophy.

1717, 1719: Assistant, then Pastor (Bartenstein).

Died in January in Königsberg. [Sources: Arnoldt 1756, 206]

Weiß, Paul Christian (172?-17??)

1754: Lecturer in Philosophy.

1757: Pastor (Lichtenhagen).

1764: Deacon at the Alstadt Church (Königsberg).

Born and died (24 Jan 1785) in Königsberg. Not in Oberhausen/Pozzo [1999], nor in Pisanski. (Unclear that he was lecturing in 1754.) [Sources: Arnoldt 1777, 42; Rhesa 1834, 13] [last update: 23 May 2007]

Werner, Georg (1686-1729)

1713 (Apr 20): Magister (Königsberg).

1713: Lecturer in Philosophy?

1716: Conrector at the Löbenicht Church.

1721, 1726: Conrector, then Prorector, at Kneiphof School.

Born (Oct 10) and died (Oct 22) in Königsberg. [Sources: Arnoldt 1756, 208]

Werner, Jakob Friedrich (1732-1782)

1744: Matriculation (Königsberg).

1753: Lecturer in Philosophy.* (PR: 7/18)

1754: Assoc. Prof. of Rhetoric.* (PL: 10/22)

1755: Full Prof. of Rhetoric and History.*

1755-56: Librarian, Wallenrodt Library (replaced C. H. Gütther, his step-father).

Jakob Friedrich Werner was born and died in Königsberg. He was the son of a Privy Councillor, and grandson of the theology professor Christian Sahme. He married Lovisa Henriette Pietsche, a niece of Professor Valentin Pietsch. Censor of the theater. Teske was a respondant at his pro loco disputation; K. D. Reusch was one of the student participants at his pro receptione disputation. He assumed the directorship of Gütther’s “Free Society” upon the latter’s death in 1755. As full professor of rhetoric and history, he was required each winter to give two hours on translating an author, one on the introduction to speaking, and one on Latin and German style. In the summer he was responsible for universal history. [Sources: Goldbeck 1782, 82-84, 153; Metzger 1804, 42-43; APB; Gause 1996, ii.241]

Weymann, Daniel (1732-1795)

1752: Matriculation (Königsberg).

1759 (Sep 29): Magister, Lecturer in Philosophy (PR: Oct 6); Conrector at the Löbenicht School (Königsberg).*

1762, 1774, 1785: Conrector, prorector, then rector of the Altstadt School.

1766: Applied unsuccessfuly for an assoc. prof. in philosophy (the government agreed with the academic senate not to create a position for him).

1773: Applied for an associate professorship (to replace Christiani, who was ill).

1775: Prohibited from lecturing on Crusius.

Born in Brieg (Schlesia), died in Königsberg. A Pietist and a Crusian, he attacked Leibniz and Wolff in his writings. An opponent (and competitor for students) of Kant’s, he edited a short-lived weekly (Philosophische Wochenschrift, 1764) that had been called into existence simply to criticize Kant, the “Harlequin” of the academic stage. Served as rector of the Altstadt School. A royal edict (25 December 1775) named him and Wlochatius as prohibited from teaching Crusius [bio] in their classes; Goldbeck reports that he gave up teaching altogether after this. The last semester that he announced lectures was SS 1780. Kant had a small skirmish with him in 1759 regarding his essay on optimism [writings]; see Kant’s letter to Lindner (28 Oct. 1759; AA 10:19; Zweig 1999, 56). See also Rink [1805, 43-5]. [Sources: Arnoldt 1769, 155; Goldbeck 1782, 88, 174; APB; Rehberg 1942, 111]

Wichert, Johann Christoph (1713-1769)

1736 or 1737: Magister (Jena).

1738: Lecturer in Philosophy.*

1740: Deacon (Bartenstein).

Born (May 14) in Pr. Holland, died (Aug 9) in Bartenstein. Not in Oberhausen/Pozzo [1999]. [Sources: Arnoldt 1769, 156; Arnoldt 1777, 227]

Wilcke, David (1685-1745)

[did he matriculate in Königsberg?]

1704 (Sep 18): Magister, Lecturer in Philosophy* (Königsberg).

1712: Left for Oxford.

1717: Dr. Divinity (Cambridge).

1724: Prof. of Arabic (Cambridge).

1715: Libarian (Lambeth Palace).

Also: Wilkins, Wilke, Wilkius. Born in Memel, died (Sep 6) in Hadleigh (England). Studied in Berlin, Rome, Vienna, Paris, Amsterdam, Oxford, and Cambridge. Applied for an MA degree at Oxford (23 May 1712) but was denied; later received a Dr. of Divinity from Cambridge, where he then taught Arabic. Later served as a librarian, and in various capacities within the Church of England (archdeacon in Suffolk; Canon at Canterbury). [Sources: Arnoldt 1746, ii.433, 446-7; Pisanski 1886, 708; DNB]

Wlochatius, August Wilhelm (1744-1815)

1759 (Sep 21): Matriculation (Königsberg).

1769: Magister and Lecturer in Philosophy (Königsberg).*

1795: Assoc. Prof. of Philosophy (Königsberg).

Wlochatius was born in Darkehmen, Prussia (now Oz’orsk) a village lying about 100 km. east of Königsberg. He taught philosophy at Königsberg as a younger colleague of Immanuel Kant, and was a disciple of Christian August Crusius [bio].

Wlochatius matriculated at the Königsberg university on 21 September 1759, received his magister degree and habilitated ten years later, and began offering lectures on philosophy. It is not known whether, as a student, he had attended any of Kant’s classes, but his interest in the philosophy of Crusius suggests he would have favored courses either from the recently appointed full professor of logic and metaphysics, F. J. Buck [bio], who lectured from Crusius’s textbooks in both of his public lecture courses (logic, metaphysics), or from Daniel Weymann [bio].

From 1772 until 1784 Wlochatius served as second inspector of the college and the Alumnat (the subsidized student dormitory and cafeteria) [glossary], and as such was next in line for an associate professorship in philosophy, which he received in 1795. In August of 1786 he applied for the full professorship of mathematics made vacant by the death of F. J. Buck, and although his application was supported by some eighty to ninety students petitioning Berlin on his behalf, the position was instead filled by Kant’s close friend Johann Schultz [bio].

Johann Daniel Metzger, a contemporary professor of medicine and a historian of the university, described Wlochatius as a diligent linguist whose career had likely been stymied because of his Crusian sympathies. A longer biography of Wlochatius is also available. [Sources: Goldbeck 1782, 88; Goldbeck 1783, ii.116; Hamberger 1800, 8.580; 1812, 16.257; Metzger 1804, 68; Bornhak 1900, 87-88; Stark 1999, 113-62; Oberhausen/Pozzo 1999, 560]

Wolf, Abraham (1680-1731)

1705: Matriculation (Halle).

1708: Teaching at the Collegium Fridericianum.

1717 (Nov 11): Magister (Königsberg).

1717-26: Assoc. Prof. of Oriental Languages (Königsberg).*

1721: Inspector of the Collegium Fridericianum. (Goldbeck: 1715.)

1725 (Aug 30): Dr. of Theology; 6th Full Prof. of Theology (Königsberg).

1727 (Apr 21): Pastor at the Alstadt Church and Consistory Advisor.

Also: Wolff. Born (Apr 1680) in Cabelitz (by Magdeburg), died (20 Jun 1731) in Königsberg; the son of a pastor. Studied under Francke at Halle and taught at the orphanage. In 1708 he became acquainted with Lysius at Königsberg and, with Francke’s permission, remained there. Promoted to Dr. of Theology and a full professorship in theology, where he taught while Knutzen was a student. Listed in Oberhausen/Pozzo [1999] under Philosophy until SS 1726, and under Theology beginning WS 1725/26. [Sources: Arnoldt 1746, ii.191, 420, 433; Arnoldt 1777, 35; Goldbeck 1782, 210; Pisanski 1886, 637; APB; Klemme 1994, 5] [last update: 21 May 2007]

[Index of Königsberg Professors]